Part 1: Microbio Diagnosis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Part 1: Microbio Diagnosis Deck (63):
1

3 causes of Neonatal meningitis

-1) Group B strep (agalactiae)

-2) E. coli

-3) Listeria moncytogenes

2

-Virus that causes Hydrops fatalis in neonate

Parvovirus, B19

3

Congenital Toxoplasma gondii (ToRCHHeS)

triad: Chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial califications*

4

Congenital Rubella (ToRCHHeS)

Triad: PDA, Cataracts, deafness -maybe "blueberry muffin" rash

5

Congenital CMV (ToRCHHeS)

Hearing loss, seizures, petechial rash, "blueberry muffin" rash -mom: maybe has mono-like illness

6

HSV-2 (ToRCHHeS)

-often happens during birth

-Encephalitis, herpetic (vesicular) lesions

7

HIV (ToRCHHeS)

Recurrent infxns, chronic diarrhea, thrush, Interstitial pneumonia

-Give mom Pre-natal Prophylax: ZDZ, AZT: retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitor

8

Syphillis (ToRCHHeS)

-Mom: Chancre (1) and disseminated rash (2) --> likely to infect

-baby: Hydrops fetalis, facial dry/wrinkling/yellow-brown, notched teeth/Hutchinsons, saddle nose, saber shins, CN8 DEAFNESS, hemorrhagic rhinitis (blood out of nose)

9

Dominant flora: Skin

Staph epidermidis

10

Dominant flora: Nose

S. epidermidis, colonized by Staph Aureus

11

Dominant flora: Oropharynx

Viridans group streptococci

12

Dominant flora: Dental plaque

Streptococcus mutans

13

Dominant flora: colon

Bacteroides fragilis > E. coli

14

Dominant flora: Vagina

Lactobacillus (gram + anaerobes, killed off by AB use), colonized by E. Coli and Group B strep/aglactiae

15

Food psn: Contaminated seafood/oysters --> diarrhea

Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Vibrio vulnificus (can also cause would infxns from contact w contaminated water or shellfish) - think of the fisherman who is VULNerable to hand infxns and has diarrhea

16

Food psn: Reheated rice

Bacillus cereus (starts quickly, ends quickly)

17

Food psn:Meats, mayonnaise, custard; preformed toxin

Staph aureus (starts quickly, ends quickly)

18

Food psn: Reheated meat dishes

Clostridium perfingens (the one that also causes gas gangrene, gross! Meat - fleshy wounds...war, etc)

-"LATE ONSET food psn/diarrhea" bc the spores are ingested, germinate in the GI, and then make toxin

19

Food psn: Improperly canned foods (the can is bulging)

Clostridium botulinum (toxin)

spores in honey

20

Food psn: Undercooked meat

EHEC (kid eating the hamburer!)

21

Food psn: Poultry, meats, eggs

Salmonella

22

Bugs that mimic appendix

Yersenia entercolita (mesenteric adenitis)

Salmonella (nontyphoidal)

Campylobacter jejuni

23

Bloody diarrhea: comma,S shaped. Grows at 42C

Campylobacter jejuni

24

Bloody diarrhea: Lactose neg, flagellar motility, has animal reservoir, esp poultry and eggs, produces H2S

Salmonella

25

Bloody diarrhea: Lactose neg, very low ID50; Human reservoir only

Shigella: Shiga toxin

low ID50: doesn't take many bugs (only like 10!) to cause infxn

26

Bloody diarrhea: but not invasive. O157:H7

EHEC --> SLT. Can cause HUS

stool: erythryocytes but no leukocytes

27

Bloody diarrhea: Invades colonic mucosa

EIEC

28

Bloody diarrhea: day-care outbreaks, pseudoappendicitis

Yersinia enterocolitica (causes pediatric diarrhea, think of the puppy poop!)

29

Bloody diarrhea: protozoan

Entamoeba histolytica

30

Watery diarrhea: Traveler's diarrhea

E. coli (ETEC). ST and LT toxins

31

Watery diarrhea: comma-shaped organism; rice water diarrhea

Vibrio cholera

32

Watery darrhea: Can also cause bloody** diarrhea

C. diff --> Pseudomembranous colitis

Toxin A (binds cell causes malabsorption diarrhea)

Toxin B (kills the cell --> pseudomembrane formation)

33

Watery diarrhea: also causes gas gangrene

Clostridum perfringens

34

Watery diarrhea: protozoan

Giardia lamblia

Cryptosporidium (esp in AIDS)

35

Watery diarrhea: viruses

Rotavirus (reo-virus)

Norovirus (Calcivirus)

36

Neonate Pneumonia (<4 weeks)

-1) Group B strep (agalactiae)

-2) E. coli

37

Children Pneumonia (4weeks-18yrs)

Runts May Cough Chunky Sputum

-1) RSV  (paRamyxovirus)

-Mycoplasma

-Chlamydia trachomatis (weird)

-Chlamydia pneumoniae (school-age children)

-Strep pneumo

(Virus, atypicals, strep pneumo)

38

Younger adults pneumonia (18-40 yrs)

Mycoplasma

Chlamydia pneumoniae

Step pneumo

39

Older adults Pneumonia (40-65 yrs)

Step pneumo

H. flu

Anaerobes

Viruses

Mycoplasma

40

Elderly pneumonia

Step pneumo

Influenza virus**

Anaerobes

H. flu

Gram-neg rods

41

Pneumonia: Nosocomial (hospital acquired)

Staphylococcus (think MRSA)

Enteric gram-neg rods

42

Pneumonia: Immunocompromised

Staphlycoccus

enteric gram-neg rods

Fungi

Viruses

PCP (in AIDS)

43

Pneumonia: Aspiration

Anaerobes, Klebsiella

44

Pneumonia: Alcoholic/IV drug user

Step pneumo

Klebsiella

Staphlycoccus

45

Pneumonia: Cystic Fibrosis

Pseudomonas

S. aureus

Strep pneumo

46

Pneumonia: Postviral

Staphlycoccus

H. flu

Strep pneumo

47

Pneumonia: Atypical

Mycoplasma

Legionella

Chlamydia

(Chlamydophila psittaci)

48

Neonate Meningitis (<4 weeks)

-Group B strep

E. coli

Listeria

49

Children Meningitis (6mo-6yr)

Step pneumo

Neisseria meningitidis

H. flu (type B - see in un-immunized children)

Enteroviruses (Echovirus, Coxackievirus)

50

Adults Meningitis (6-60yrs)

Step pneumo

N. meningitidies (#1 in teens)

Enteroviruses HSV

51

Elderly meningitis (60+)

Step pneumo

Gram-neg rods

Listeria

52

Viruses that cause meningitis

Enteroviruses (esp Coxsackie, Echovirus)

HSV-2

(HSV-1 = temporal lobe encephalitis)

HIV

West Nile virus

VZV

53

Bacterial Meningitis: CSF

-Opening pressure

-Cell type

-Protein

-Glucose

-Opening pressure: Incr

-cell type: PMNs***

-Protein: incr

-Glucose: DECR (bacteria eating it!)

54

Fungal/TB Meningitis: CSF

-Opening pressure

-Cell type

-Protein

-Glucose

-Opening pressure: incr

-cell type: Lymphocytes

-Protein: incr

-Glucose: decr (remember how candida uses glucose to cause yeast infxns?)

55

Viral Meningitis: CSF

-Opening pressure

-Cell type

-Protein

-Glucose

-Opening pressure: Normal/Incr

-Cell type: Lymphocytes

-Protein: nl/incr

-Glucose: NORMAL

56

Osteomyelitis: Assume if no other info given

Incr CRP and ESR in Osteomyelitis (typically)

Staph aureus

57

Osteomyelitis: Sexually active

Incr CRP and ESR in Osteomyelitis (typically)

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (rare) - septic arthritis more common

58

Osteomyelitis: Diabetics and IVDU

Incr CRP and ESR in Osteomyelitis (typically)

Pseudomonas

Serratia

59

Osteomyelitis: Sickle cell

Incr CRP and ESR in Osteomyelitis (typically)

Salmonella (encapsulated)

60

Osteomyelitis: Prosthetic replacement

Incr CRP and ESR in Osteomyelitis (typically)

S. aureus

S. epidermidis

61

Osteomyelitis: Vertebral ds

Incr CRP and ESR in Osteomyelitis (typically)

TB (Potts)

62

Osteomyelitis: Cat or dog bites, scratches

Incr CRP and ESR in Osteomyelitis (typically)

Pasteurella multocida

63

Endocarditis in IV drug users

--> Right sided heart failure (tricuspid valve)

-#1: Staph aureus

-#2 Pseudomonas

-septic embolization --> Pulmonary hemorrhagic infarct

also candida assoc w IV drug use, endocarditis