Flashcards in Experiments Deck (40):
What is Reliability?
The consistency of findings; how much they can be trusted and reproduced.
What is Validity?
How accurate or true something is: if it measures what it claims.
What is Internal Reliability?
How consistently a method measures within itself.
What is External Reliability?
How consistently a method measures over time when repeated.
What is Internal Validity?
Whether the results in the study were due to the variables suggested.
What is External Validity?
Whether the results can be generalised if conducted in different environments or using different participants.
What is Ecological Validity?
Whether a test is representative of naturally occurring behaviour.
What is Intra-Rater Reliability?
The consistency of one researchers behaviour.
What is Inter-Rater Reliability?
The consistency between two or more researchers working on the same study.
What is Face Validity?
Whether the study measures what it sets out to measure.
What is Concurrent Validity?
When new test scores are correlated with previously established scores.
What are Experimenter Variables?
Confounding variables applying to the experimenter themselves.
What are Participant Variables?
Extraneous variables related to the individual characteristics of the participant.
What are Extraneous Variables?
Undesired variables which affect the DV, of which are not the IV.
What does Single Blind mean?
Where the participants aren't aware of the investigation aims.
What does Double Blind mean?
Where the participant and experimenter are unaware of the investigations aims.
What is a Repeated Measures Design?
Where 1 participant group take part in both conditions of the experiment.
What is a Independent Measures Design?
Where 2 groups of participants take part in 1 condition of the experiment each.
What is a Matches Pairs Design?
Where participants are matches on similarities/characteristics and the take part in the conditions.
What is a Field Experiment?
An investigation in a natural environment.
What is a Natural Experiment?
An experiment carried out in a lab or field, but with a naturally occurring IV.
What is a Lab Experiment?
An experiment carried out in a controlled environment.
What are Order Effects?
How the order of tasks effect the DV.
What are Practise Effects?
The effects on the DV which occur when a participant has experience of the task.
What are Fatigue Effects?
If a participant performs worse when exhausted or tied of doing one previously.
What is a Experiment?
A procedure which tries to test a hypothesis.
Two positives and negatives of Natural Experiments?
+ ecologically valid, more ethical
- less control, extraneous variables mean lack in internal validity
Two positives and negatives of Lab Experiments
+ well controlled, easy to replicated/reliable
- low ecological validity, internal validity lacks
Two positives and negatives of Field Experiments
+ high ecological validity, no demand characteristics
- confounding variables, hard to conclude cause and effect
Positives and negatives of IMD
+ no fatigue effects, lack of demand characteristics
- individual differences can effect results
Positives and negatives of RMD
+ fewer participants, participant variables minimised
- fatigue effects, demand characteristics
Positives and negatives of MPD
+ no fatigue effects, individual differences reduced
- time consuming, expensive
What are Confounding Variables?
Extraneous variables which cannot be controlled.
What is Operationalisation?
To define the variables and make the hypothesis testable.
What is a Research Hypothesis?
A general predication.
What is an Experimental Hypothesis?
A hypothesis with enough detail to carry out an investigation on.
What do Experimental Hypothesis' usually start with?
"There will be a difference in..."
What is a Null Hypothesis?
A hypothesis that predicts no difference or accepts no change.
What do Null Hypothesis' usually start with?
"There is no significant difference between..."