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What are the components of the basal ganglia

1. Corpus striatum - neostriatum and paleostriatum
2. Amygdala

3. Subthalamic nucleus

4. Substantia nigra


Neostriatum = 

Caudate and putamen


Paleostriatum = 

Globus Pallidus


Corpus Striatum =

Neo and paleostriatum

= Caudate, putamen and basal ganglia.


Achristriatum = 



Lentiform nuclei = 

Putamen and globus pallidus


Diencephalic nucleus = 

Paleostriatum and subthalamic nucleus


Telencephalic nucleus = 

Neostriatum and archistriatum


What are the components of the caudate nucleus

1. Head - contiguous with the APF
2. Body - separated from the thalamus by the stria terminalis and the terminal vein

3. Tail - In the roof of the temporal horn near the amygdala

4. Nucleus Accumbens - located where the caudate and putamen meet anteriorly


Which fibers/tracts send input to the striatum

1. Corticostriate
2. Amygdalostriate

3. Thalamostriate

4. Nigrostriatal

5. Raphe nucleus


Corticostriatal input

1. Area 4 to the bilateral putamen
2. Premotor cortex to the ipsilateral caudate and putamen

3. Prefrontal cortex to the caudate


Amygdalostriatal input

Amygdala to the caudate and putamen. 


Thalamostriatal input. 

1. Intralaminar CM nucleus to the putamen
2. Parafascicular nucleus to the caudate


Nigrostriatal input

Substantia nigra to the caudate and the putamen. Transmits inhibitory dopaminergic signals. 


Raphe nucleus input to the striatum

Transmits inhibitory serotonergic signals to the striatum. 


What are the three major striatal output fibers?

1. Striatonigral
2. Striatopallidal

3. Nigrothalamic


Striatonigral fibers ouput:

Head of the caudate to the substantia nigra pars reticulata.


Striatopallidal fibers output:

Inhibitory/GABA output from the caudate/putamen to the globus pallidus interna. 


Nigrothalamic fibers output:

Terminate in the VA, VL, MD fibers. Use GABA as neurotransmitters. 


What are the three medullary lamina

1. Lateral medullary lamina lies between the putamen and the globus pallidus

2. Medial medullary lamina - divides the medial and lateral GP

3. Accessory medullary lamina - divides the MGP into the inner and outer segments.


Input to the globus pallidus

Striatum to the LGP - GABA/enkephalin
Striatum to the MGP - Substance P

Lateral part of the subthalamus reciprocal glutamergic input to the LGP.

Medial part of the subthalamus reciprocal glutamergic input to the MGP


Which neurotransmitters are decreased in Huntington's disease and to which regions. 

Substance P and enkephalin.

Globus Pallidus and substantia nigra.


What are the four output bundles/tracts from the globus pallidus. 

1. Ansa lenticularis
2. Lenticular fasciculus

3. Thalamic fasciculus

4. Pallidosubthalamic fibers.


Features of the ansa lenticularis

Major output tract of the globus pallidus

From the MGP around the IC to Forel's field H1 - FFH1 - and the prerubral field.


Features of the lenticular fasciculus 

Also known as FFH2 fibers.

They pass from the MGP through the IC to join the ansa lenticularis in Forel's field and then enters the thalamic fasciculus.


Features of the thalamic fasciculus

Also known as the FFH1 fibers.

This bundle is composed of the joined ansa lenticularis, lenticular fasciculus, and cerebellothalamic tract which all project to the thalamic VA and VL.


Features of the pallidosubthalamic fibers

1. LGP to the subthalamus
2. MGP to the stria medularis and lateral habenulum

3. GP to the VA, VL and CM.


Where is the subthalamus located?

Posterolateral to the hypothalamus, ventral to the thalamus and medial to the internal capsule - lesions here cause contralateral hemiballismus


What are some key components of the subthalamic nucleus

1. Subthalamic nuclei of Luys - located over the rostra SN
2. Zona incerta - grey matter between the thalamic and lenticular fasciculi. Motor input

3. Sensory fasciculi - medial lemniscus, spinothalamic, and trigeminothalamic tracts --> VP thalamus

4. Cerebellar and globus pallidus fibers which run to the thalamus.


What are the three major bundles within the subthalamic fasciculus 

1. Dentothalamic fibers --> FFH1 via the red nucleus to enter the VL
2. Ansa lenticularis

3. Lenticular fascicularis --> FFH2