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Flashcards in export_cortical anatomy Deck (68)
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1

How many cortical neurons are present in the brain

14 billion

2

What are some neuronal cell types

1. Stellate
2. Fusiform

3. Pyramidal

3

What are some excitatory neurotransmitters

1. Glutamate
2. Aspartate

4

What are some inhibitory neurotransmitters

GABA

5

How many layers are there in the neocortex

6

6

How many layers are there in the allocortex

3

7

Where in the brain is the allocortex located?

1. Olfactory cortex
2. Hippocampus

3. Dentate gyrus

8

What are the 6 layers of the neocortex

1. Molecular layer
2. External granular layer

3. External pyramidal

4. Internal granular

5. Internal pyramidal

6. Multiform

9

Features of the molecular layer

Most superficial layer, it contains horizontal axons, Golgi II cels and terminal dendritic processes.



Receives diffuse afferent fibers from the lower brain to control excitability

10

Features of the external granular layer

Contains closely packed granule cells. This region is poorly myelinated

11

Features of the external pyramidal layer

Contains pyramidal neurons, granule cells and Martinotti cells.



Commissural fibers which connect the two hemispheres and ipsilateral cortico-cortico association fibers lie within this region.

12

Features of the internal granular layer

Contains closely packed stellate cells.



This region is enlarged in the sensory cortex.

13

What is the external band of Baillarger

It is a dense horizontal myelinated plexus found in the internal granular layer

14

Features of the internal pyramidal layer.

Contains the largest cells - Betz cells.
It also contains pyramidal neurons, granule cells and Martinotti cells.

The main efferents from this region go to the brain stem and the spinal cord.

15

Internal band of Baillarger

Dense myelinated plexus which lies within the internal pyramidal layer

16

The internal pyramidal layer is enlarged in which cortex

The motor cortex

17

The internal granular layer is enlarged in which cortex

The sensory cortex

18

Features of the multiform cortex

It contains spindle-shaped cells.



Projects efferent fibers to the thalamus.

19

Brodman area 1,2,3:

Functional area: Primary somatosensory cortex
Location: Postcentral gyrus

Function: Touch

20

Brodman area 4

Functional area: Primary motor cortex
Location: Precentral gyrus

Function: Voluntary motor control

21

Brodman area 5

Functional area: Tertiary somatosensory cortex and posterior parietal association
Location: Superior parietal lobule

Function: Stereogenesis

22

Brodman area 6

Functional area: SMA, supplementary eye field, premotor adjacent cortex
Location: Premotor cortex and rostral adjacent cortex

Function: Limb and eye movement planning

23

Brodman area 7

Functional area: Posterior parietal association
Location: SPL

Function: Visuomotor control, perception

24

Brodman area 8

Functional area: Frontal eye fields
Location:Superior and middle frontal gyri and the medial frontal lobe

Function: Visuomotor control, perception, saccadic eye movements.

25

Brodman area 9,10,11,12

Functional area: Prefrontal association cortex,
Location: Superior and middle frontal gyri.

Function. Thought and cognition

26

Brodman areas 13,14,15,16

Functional area: Frontal eye fields
Location: Medial frontal lobe. Insular cortex.

Function: Movement planning

27

Brodman area 17

Functional area: Primary visual cortex

Location: Banks of the calcarine fissure

Function: Vision

28

Brodman area 18

Functional area: Secondary visual cortex
Location: Medial and lateral occipital gyri

Function: Vision and depth

29

Brodman area 19

Functional area: Temporal visual area
Location: Occipital gyri

Function: Depth

30

Brodman area 20

Functional area: Visual inferotemporal area
Location: inferior temporal gyrus

Function: Form vision