Central tegmental tract
connects the rostral solitary nucleus to the medial thalamic VPM and the red nucleus to the inferior olive
Medial forebrain bundle
connects the septal area, hypothalamus, basal olfactory areas, hippocampus and subiculum to the midbrain, pons and medulla.
Connects the septal area, hypothalamus, olfactory area and anterior thalamus to the habenulum.
amygdala to the hypothalamus
Hippocampus to the cingulate gyrus
Nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca/vertical limb
septal nuclei to the hippocampus
retinal ganglion cells to the suprachiasmatic nuclei and other hypothalamic nuclei
connects the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to the neurohypophysis/posterior pituitary
Tuberoinfundibular or tuberohypophyseal tract
Neuroendocrine neurons from the arcuate nucleus to the hypophyseal portal system - release dopamine and GHRH
Ventral cochlear nuclei to the contralateral superior olive
Thalamic fasciculus - FFH1
combines the ansa lenticularis, lenticular fasciculus and cerebellothalamic tract to the VA/VL thalamus
Nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca/horizontal limb
septal nuclei to the amygdala
Mamillary bodies to the anterior thalamic nuclei
Corpus callosal fibers to the occipital lobes
White rami communicans
Contain preganglionic myelinated sympathetics fibers from the intermediolateral nucleus exiting the spinal cord going to the paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic trunk
Gray Rami Communicans
Contain unmyelinated postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the paravertebral ganglia which are then received by the spinal nerves and then travel out to an effector organ
Lesions of the STN cause
What regions/tracts are responsible for inhibiting extensor action in the arms and legs
1. Cortical inhibition of lateral vestibular nucleus/vestibulospinal tract 2. Cortical inhibition of the pontine reticular formation 3. Projections from the red nucleus to the spinal cord (stop at the cervical level.) (Rubrospinal projections) 4. Medullary reticular formation
Disconnection lesions above the red nucleus result in
Disconnection lesions below the red nucleus result in
The veins which drain into the cavernous sinus are:
1. Superior and inferior ophthalmic veins 2. Superficial middle cerebral vein 3. Sphenoparietal sinus.
The persistent trigeminal artery runs from what to what
The cavernous ICA, proximal to the meningohypophyseal trunk to the mid basilar artery between the SCA and AICA. Seen in 0.1-0.6% of people.
The Hering-Breuer reflex is mediated by
Cranial nerve 10 which sends afferent information to the medullary inspiratory center and pontine apneustic center to control the depth of breathing.
Annulus of Zinn contents:
Annulus of Zinn is a fibrous ring continuous with the dura of the middle cranial fossa. It contains - Optic nerve, ophthalmic artery, superior and inferior division of cranial nerve 3, nasociliary division of V1 and the abducens nerve.
How many primary and secondary ossification centers are typically seen in each vertebrae
3 primary. 5 secondary.
What are the three stages of vertebral column development
1. Mesenchymal - formation of sclerotomes and myotomes. The former give rise to centrum aka primordial vertebral body
2. Cartilaginous - chrondrification centers arise in the centrum and vertebral arches.
3. Bony - ossification. 3 primary and 5 secondary (after puberty)
What are splanchnic nerves
Preganglionic myelinated sympathetic nerve fibers which arised from the intermediolateral column, exited via the white rami communicans and then passed through the sympathetic ganglia without synpasing before going onto the prevertebral ganglia.
Seen in the abdominal and pelvic sympathetic innervation which arises from T4-L2 (go to the celiac and hypogastric plexi) and T10-L2 (go to the pelvic plexus) respectively.
What are the nervi erigentes
The nervis erigentes represent the sacral parasympathetic outflow. They arise off of the anterior rami of S2, S3 and S4 and are essentially pelvic splanchnic nerves. They provide
1. visceromotor to rectal muscles, inibition to the internal anal sphincter
2. motor to the bladder wall, inhibition to the internal vesicle sphincter
3. vasodilator to the cavernous sinuses of the penis and clitoris
Where do parasympathetic sensory afferents synpase?
1. The nucleus solitarius - located in the medulla and receieved parasympathetic sensory afferent fibers from the GI, respiratory, cardiac, mouth and pharynx regions via cranial nerves 7, 9 and 10.
2. Sacral parasympathetic sensory afferents terminate in the S2-S4 gray matter.
What are the segments of the internal carotidNext
Cervical. Petrous. Lacerum. Cavernous. Clinoidal. Ophthalmic/supraclinoidal. Communicating.