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Flashcards in SA_chap1 Deck (66)
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Central tegmental tract

connects the rostral solitary nucleus to the medial thalamic VPM and the red nucleus to the inferior olive


Medial forebrain bundle

connects the septal area, hypothalamus, basal olfactory areas, hippocampus and subiculum to the midbrain, pons and medulla.


Stria medularis

Connects the septal area, hypothalamus, olfactory area and anterior thalamus to the habenulum.


Stria terminalis

amygdala to the hypothalamus


Postcommisural Fornix 

Hippocampus to the cingulate gyrus


Nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca/vertical limb

septal nuclei to the hippocampus


Retinohypothalamic tract 

retinal ganglion cells to the suprachiasmatic nuclei and other hypothalamic nuclei



connects the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei to the neurohypophysis/posterior pituitary


Tuberoinfundibular or tuberohypophyseal tract

Neuroendocrine neurons from the arcuate nucleus to the hypophyseal portal system - release dopamine and GHRH


Trapezoid body

Ventral cochlear nuclei to the contralateral superior olive


Thalamic fasciculus - FFH1

combines the ansa lenticularis, lenticular fasciculus and cerebellothalamic tract to the VA/VL thalamus


Nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca/horizontal limb

septal nuclei to the amygdala


Mammillothalamic tract

Mamillary bodies to the anterior thalamic nuclei



Corpus callosal fibers to the occipital lobes


White rami communicans

Contain preganglionic myelinated sympathetics fibers from the intermediolateral nucleus exiting the spinal cord going to the paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic trunk


Gray Rami Communicans

Contain unmyelinated postganglionic sympathetic fibers from the paravertebral ganglia which are then received by the spinal nerves and then travel out to an effector organ


Lesions of the STN cause



What regions/tracts are responsible for inhibiting extensor action in the arms and legs

1. Cortical inhibition of lateral vestibular nucleus/vestibulospinal tract 2. Cortical inhibition of the pontine reticular formation 3. Projections from the red nucleus to the spinal cord (stop at the cervical level.) (Rubrospinal projections) 4. Medullary reticular formation


Disconnection lesions above the red nucleus result in 

Decorticate posturing


Disconnection lesions below the red nucleus result in

Decerebrate posturing


The veins which drain into the cavernous sinus are:

1. Superior and inferior ophthalmic veins 2. Superficial middle cerebral vein 3. Sphenoparietal sinus.


The persistent trigeminal artery runs from what to what

The cavernous ICA, proximal to the meningohypophyseal trunk to the mid basilar artery between the SCA and AICA. Seen in 0.1-0.6% of people. 


The Hering-Breuer reflex is mediated by

Cranial nerve 10 which sends afferent information to the medullary inspiratory center and pontine apneustic center to control the depth of breathing. 


Annulus of Zinn contents:

Annulus of Zinn is a fibrous ring continuous with the dura of the middle cranial fossa. It contains - Optic nerve, ophthalmic artery, superior and inferior division of cranial nerve 3, nasociliary division of V1 and the abducens nerve.


How many primary and secondary ossification centers are typically seen in each vertebrae

3 primary. 5 secondary.


What are the three stages of vertebral column development

1. Mesenchymal - formation of sclerotomes and myotomes. The former give rise to centrum aka primordial vertebral body

2. Cartilaginous - chrondrification centers arise in the centrum and vertebral arches.

3. Bony - ossification. 3 primary and 5 secondary (after puberty)


What are splanchnic nerves

Preganglionic myelinated sympathetic nerve fibers which arised from the intermediolateral column, exited via the white rami communicans and then passed through the sympathetic ganglia without synpasing before going onto the prevertebral ganglia. 

Seen in the abdominal and pelvic sympathetic innervation which arises from T4-L2 (go to the celiac and hypogastric plexi) and T10-L2 (go to the pelvic plexus) respectively. 


What are the nervi erigentes

The nervis erigentes represent the sacral parasympathetic outflow. They arise off of the anterior rami of S2, S3 and S4 and are essentially pelvic splanchnic nerves. They provide

1. visceromotor to rectal muscles, inibition to the internal anal sphincter

2. motor to the bladder wall, inhibition to the internal vesicle sphincter

3. vasodilator to the cavernous sinuses of the penis and clitoris


Where do parasympathetic sensory afferents synpase?

1. The nucleus solitarius - located in the medulla and receieved parasympathetic sensory afferent fibers from the GI, respiratory, cardiac, mouth and pharynx regions via cranial nerves 7, 9 and 10. 

2. Sacral parasympathetic sensory afferents terminate in the S2-S4 gray matter. 


What are the segments of the internal carotidNext

Cervical. Petrous. Lacerum. Cavernous. Clinoidal. Ophthalmic/supraclinoidal. Communicating.