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1

What are the six different modalities fibers may carry in cranial nerves

1. General somatic efferent - GSE
2. General visceral efferent - GVE

3. Special visceral efferent - SVE

4. General somatic afferent - GSA

5. General visceral afferent - GVA

6. Sensory afferent - SA

2

Which cranial nerves carry GSE fibers

Cranial nerves 3, 4, 6, and 12.



Eyes and tongue

3

Which cranial nerves carry GVE fibers

Cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, and 10

4

Which cranial nerves carry SVE fibers

Provide motor innervation to the muscles derived from the branchial arches.



5, 7, 9, 10, and 11

5

Which cranial nerves carry general somatic afferent fibers

Cranial nerves 5, 7, 9, and 10. They transmit visceral information but not pain. 

6

Which cranial nerves carry general visceral afferent fibers

Cranial nerves 9 and 10. 

7

Which cranial nerves carry sensory afferent fibers

Cranial nerves 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9

8

The occulomotor nerve is associated with what ganglion

The ciliary ganglion (AUTONOMIC)

9

The trigeminal nerve is associated with what ganglion

The trigeminal ganglion (SENSORY)

10

The facial nerve is associated with what ganglion

1. Geniculate ganglion (SENSORY)
2. Pterygopalatine (AUTONOMIC)

3. Submandibular (AUTONOMIC)

11

The vestibulocochlear nerve is associated with what ganglion

The spiral and vestibular ganglion (both SENSORY)

12

The glossopharyngeal nerve is associated with what ganglion

The superior and inferior/petrosal ganglion (SENSORY)



The otic ganglion (AUTONOMIC)

13

The vagus nerve is associated with what ganglion 

The superior/jugular ganglion (SENSORY)
The inferior/nodose ganglion (SENSORY)




The prevertebral and intramural ganglia (AUTONOMIC)

14

Features of the olfactory nerve

Sensory afferent nerve. Its primary neurons lie in the olfactory epithelium and function simultaneously as neurosecretory cells and sensory receptors. The primary neurons send bundles of axons across the cribiform plate to synapse with the secondary neurons - mitral and tufted cells - within the olfactory bulbs. 

15

Mitral cells project to the....

Lateral olfactory area

16

Tufted cells project to the 

Anterior olfactory nucleus (primarily)



Also the lateral, intermediate and medial olfactory areas.

17

The primary/lateral olfactory area is composed of:

1. Uncus
2. Entorrhinal area - anterior portion of the hippocampal gyrus

3. Limen insula

4. Part of the amygdala

18

What is the pyriform cortex

Three of the regions/areas which make up the primary/lateral olfactory area comprise the pyriform cortex:



1. Uncus

2. Entorrhinal area - anterior portion of the hippocampus

3. Limen insula - insular and frontal lobe junction

19

The olfactory tract carries the axons of secondary olfactory neurons (mitral and tufted cells) to these three olfactory areas:

1. Primary/lateral olfactory area via the lateral olfactory stria


2. Anterior perforated substance/intermediate olfactory area via intermediate olfactory stria




3. Medial olfactory area/septal area via medial olfactory stria. This area mediates emotional response to odors.

20

What connects the three olfactory areas

The diagonal band of Broca. 

21

Efferent fiber output from the olfactory area travels in the following bundles/tracts:

1. The medial forebrain bundle from all three olfactory areas to the hypothalamus



2. Stria medullaris thalami from all three olfactory areas to the habenular nucleus




3. Stria terminalis from the amygdala to the anterior hypothalamus and pre-optic area.

22

The hypothalamus sends olfactory information to which three areas

1. Reticular formation


2. Salvitory nuclei




3. Dorsal motor nucleus of X - responsible for nausea, accelerated peristalsis and enhanced gastric secretions.

23

Where is the anterior olfactory nucleus located, where does it receive its input and where does it project to?

1. Located between the olfactory bulb and tract



2. Receives input from the tufted cells




3. Projects to the contralateral olfactory bulb via the anterior commissure. It also projects to the ipsilateral olfactory areas.

24

What are the primary and secondary neurons of the second cranial nerve

Cranial nerve II/optic - carries sensory afferent fibers.



Primary sensory neurons are bipolar cells of the retina and they synapse with the retinal ganglion cells (secondary neurons)

25

What are the three types of retinal ganglion cells?

1. X cells

2. Y cells

3. W cells

26

What are the features of the X-cells

Largest cell bodies of the three types of retinal ganglion cells.



They provide a tonic response to the pretectum and lateral geniculate body.
Their transmission rate is very slow.

27

What are the features of the Y cells

They provide a phasic response to the lateral geniculate body and the superior colliculus.



Their transmission rate is rapid.

28

What are the features of the W-cells

The smallest cell bodies of the retinal ganglion cells.



They provide tonic and phasic response to the superior colliculus and pretectum.




They have a very slow transmission rate.

29

What is the general pathway of information carried via cranial nerve 2. 

Bipolar retinal cells synpase with the retinal ganglion cells. The latter then send axons to the optic nerve --> optic canal --> optic chiasm --> optic tract --> projections. 

30

The optic tract projects information to the following areas:

1. Thalamic lateral geniculate body
- which then sends tertiary neurons (optic radiations) to the primary visual cortex around the calcarine fissure.



2. Pretectal area - light reflex




3. Superior colliculus - eye movement reflexes




4. Suprachiasmatic nuclei - neuroendocrine/day night stuff