Flashcards in Extras Deck (27):
What are the acute phase proteins and what do they do.
C reactive and serum amyloid bind to bacteria cell wall
Man an binding lectins bind to mannose
How do antibodies kill viruses?
Prevent antigen from binding to receptor
Killed by NK
Describe the action of opsonins
Antibody binds to antigen
Complement glycoproteins binds to pathogen
Activate neutrophils = phagocytosis
What mechanisms do neutrophils use to kill pathogens?
Oxygen dependent and independent
What are the roles of complements?
Clearing antigen-antibody complex
What are the 2 types of mast cells?
Mucosal and connective
What is an immunoglobulin domain?
Internal intrachain disulphide bonds
What part of the variable region of the antibody binds to antigen?
Complementary determining verging at end of variable region
What are isotypes and allotypes?
Isotypes = different constant regions
Allotypes = different variable regions
What enzymes is involved in the removal of unused segments of DNA?
What gene codes for VDJ Recombinase and what disease is caused by a deficiency of this gene?
Describe T cell independent pathway
Log polysaccharide with repeating subunits bind to BCR
PAMPs also provide co-stimulation
Describe the T dependent pathway
Dendritic and B cell present the same antigen to helper T
Helper T activated = clonal expansion
What improves the immune response for B cells between primary and secondary ?
Describe the structure of MCH Class I
3 alpha chains and 1 beta microglobulin chain
Alpha chains are bigger and transmembrane
Describe the structure of MCH Class II
2 alpha and 2 beta chains
All the same size and all transmembrane
Describe antigen presentation by MHC class 1
Virus protein enters and fuses with proteosome
enters ER by TAP
MHC class 1 assembles
Chaperone protein aids folding of MHC
MHC class II presentation
Antigen move to endocytic pathways
MHC class II enters ER
Associates with invariant chain
Invariant chain digested leaving clip protein
Replace clip protein with antigen
2 ways of inducing apoptosis
Granzyme and perforin
Fas ligand binds to Fas receptor
Both release caspases
What are the 2 phases in delayed type hypersensitivity
Sensitisation = initial exposure
Effector = delayed response
5 types of helper T
T helper 1=inflammation
T helper 2=activation of B
T helper 17=control bacteria
Follicular T helper= generate isotypes
T reg = regulatory
Hypercytokinemia and sepsis?
Too much immune response
Hypercytokinemia = too many cytokines
Sepsis = bacteria in blood
What is immunological tolerance ?
Specific unresponsiveness to antigens
2 types of tolerance.
Central = destroy self reactive T and B before enter circulation
Peripheral = destroy self reactive T and B that don’t reach circulation
What does AIRE do?
Allow thymus expression of all genes
Describe 4 mechanisms of peripheral tolerance
Anergy = ACP shuts down helper T
Deletion =apoptosis of helper T
Ignorance = no ACPs in some areas
Regulation = t reg regulate helper T