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Flashcards in Introduction Deck (15):
1

Describe the evolutionary arms race

Pathogen and host put selective pressure on each other
Allows both to evolve
Pathogen replicate faster so at an advantage but host has flexible immune system

2

Describe the primary response

Innate :
Interferons type 1 interferes with replication
Natural killer cells kill pathogen
Acquired:
Cytotoxic T
Antibody production

3

Innate immunity

Present from birth
Relies of pre formed molecules
Faster
Not specific
Recognises patterns PAMPs and DAMPS
Neutrophils, NK, macrophages

4

Acquired immunity

More specific
Slower
Only when exposed to pathogen
Relies on clonal selection
Give memory
T, B, dendritic, eosinophils, basophils

5

What does innate immunity do?

Buys time and triggers acquired immunity

6

Describe acute phase inflammation

Interleukin 1 causes fever
Production of:
C-reactive proteins
Serum amyloid proteins
Mannan binding let in

These bind to cell wall of pathogen or sugars found only in pathogens

7

What are cytokines?

Soluble Proteins that allow communication

8

What is an IMMUNOGEN

Antigen that triggers an immune response

9

What are the 5 types of immunoglobulins?

Ig G,M,A,E,D

10

IgG

Crosses placenta from mum to child
Most abundant

11

IgM

Pentamer
Agglutination in primary response

12

IgA

Contains secretory components

13

IgE

In allergic response
Bind to basophils and mast cells and trigger histamine production

14

IgD

Found on B lymphocytes

15

How to antibodies kill a virus?

Bind to virus so it can’t attach to cell
Opsonisation so easily phagocytosed
Complement - lysis
Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity- NK cells lyse virus