Flashcards in Regulation Of Lymphocyte Response Deck (20):
What is an autoimmune disease?
Immune response against self antigens as they are recognised by MCHs
What is an immune mediated inflammatory disease?
Chronic disease with inflammation caused by lack of tolerance or regulation
Can be caused by antigens that look similar to self antigens
T cells or antibodies
What is an allergy?
Harmful immune response to non infectious agents
- mediated by IgE and mast cells releasing histamine
- T cells
What is hypercytokinemia and sepsis?
Too much immune response due to positive feedback
Hypercytokinemia = too many cytokines in blood
Sepsis = when bacteria enters blood
What 4 things can be caused by poorly regulated immune response?
How can these be treated?
By developing immunological tolerance to these agents
What is immunological tolerance?
Specific unresponsive ness to antigens that induce unnecessary immune response as if B recognise self antigen they could mutate to recognise it better which is dangerous for us
What are central and peripheral tolerance?
Central =destroy self reactive T and B before they enter circulation
Peripheral = destroy self reactive T and B that don’t enter circulation
What is AIRE?
Autoimmune regulator allows thymus to express the genes that update expressed in all peptides in peripheral tissue
This means that T cells can be tolerant to all self cells
What does a mutation in AIRE cause ?
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy synth drone type 1
What are the 4 mechanisms for peripheral tolerance?
Absence of costimulator signal so naive T cell cannot be activated
In sites where risk of inflammation is greater than risk of infection
There are not APC so no activation
T cell express Fas ligand = apoptosis of T cell
Produces cytokines IL10 to inhibit self reactive T and ACPs pres t antigens like in anergy
Treg express which transcription factors?
Phenotype of Treg
CD4, IL10, FoxP3
2 types of Treg
Natural = develop in thymus, in peripheral tissue
Inducible = when exposed to APC go from helper T to Treg
Resolution vs repair
Resolution = No scar tissue, back to normal
Repair = scar tissue and regeneration