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Flashcards in Female Histology Deck (39)
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1

What are the two major functions of the ovaries?

1. Produce the female gametes
2. Produce the steroid hormones that prepare the endometrium for conception and maintain preg should fert occur

2

What are the two regions of the ovaries and what is within them?

1. Medullary
-Contains rich vascular bed with cellular loose CT
2. Cortical
-Ovarian follicles reside here

3

What are granulosa cells

They are follicular cells that surround an ovarian follicle

4

What are primoridal follicles?

Before birth, primoridal germ cells proliferate by mitotic division until they number in the millions. After they are arrested in prophase of M1, they are called primordial follicles

5

Primary follicles

Around time of sexual maturity, primoridal follicles undergo further growth to become primary follicles in which the oocyte is surrounded by two or more layers of cuboidal epithelial cells

6

Granulosa cells

Follicular cells as the oocyte enlarges (during menstrual cycle)

7

Zona pellucida

A thick layer of glycoportein that is secreted as the oocyte enlarges (during menstrual cycle) between the oocyte and granulosa cells

8

Theca folliculi

Once the zona pellucida is made, the stroma surrounding the follicle differentiates into a cellular layer called the theca folliculi which are separated from granulosa cells by a thick basement membrane

9

What are the zones of the theca?

1. Theca interna
-richly vascularized
-synth androgenic steroids which are converted to estradiol by granulosa cells after diffusing into follicle

2. Theca externa
-Mostly connective tissue

10

Antrum

Large, fluid filled cavity. Marks the point of secondary follicles

11

Cumulus oophorus

Thickened area of the granulosa where the full sized oocyte is situated

12

Graafian follicle

1. Mature follicle that has completed its first meiotic division (Haploid, 2N).

2. Greatly enlarged antrum

3. Cumulus oophorus diminishes leaving the oocyte surrounded by the corona radiata.

13

Where is the first polar body?

Zona pellucida

14

What stage of meiosis occurs at just before ovulation?

The graafian follicle continues meiosis and progresses to metaphase M2, then arrests until fertilization

15

Follicular atresia

Follicular cells and oocytes die and are phagocytized. Maximal at birth, during puberty and during pregnancy

during each cycle, some follicles develop but by mid-cycle only one ovulates, the rest undergo atresia

16

What stimulates ovulation and where is it secreted?

Lots of LH secreted by anterior pituitary gland

17

What is ovulation?

Rupture of mature follicle and liberation of the ovum. Ovum is viable for 24 hours, after which it undergoes autolysis in the oviduct

18

Corpus luteum

Formed from the wall of the follicle that becomes infolded. Is a temporary endocrine gland.

19

What happens during the period of corpus luteum development?

1. Blood vessels and stroma invade previously avascular layer of granulosa cells
2. Granulosa cells and theca interna cells hypertrophy to form lutein cells

20

What do granulosa lutein secrete?

Progesterone and estrogen

21

What do Theca lutein cells secrete?

Androstenedione and progesterone

22

What does progesterone do?

Prevents development of new follicles, thus preventing ovulation

23

How long does the corpus luteum last in absence of pregnancy?

10-14 days

24

Corpus albicans

Scar of dense connective tissue where the corpus luteum was

25

What happens to the corpus luteum with pregnancy?

HCG produced by placenta stimulates it for 6 mo

26

Infundibulum

Part of oviduct that opens into peritoneal cavity to receive ovum

27

What directs ovum to tube?

Fimbriae, which extend from the end of the tube and envelop the ovulation site to direct the ovum to the tube

28

Isthmus

Part of ovum next to ampulla, small

29

Interstitial segment

Part of ovum that penetrates the wall of the uterus

30

What are the 3 layers of the wall of the oviduct?

1. Mucosa
-Longitudinal folds, most numerous in ampulla, simple columnar epithelium

2. Muscularis
3. Serosa composed of visceral peritoneum

31

Kartagener's syndrome in women

Not infertile so ciliary action is not essential

32

Tubal ectopic pregnancy

Fertilized ovum implants in wall of oviduct

33

What are the components of the uterus?

1. Body/corpus
2. Internal os
-narrowing of the uterine cavity
3. Cervix
-Lower cylindrical structure

34

What are the three layers of the alls of the uterus?

1. Outer serosa
-CT and mesothelium
OR adventitia
-CT
-->depending on what part of the uterus

2. Myometrium
-Smooth muscle
-Grows during pregnancy

3. Endometrium
-Mucosa of the uterus
-Epithelium and lamina propria

35

What are the zones of the endometrial layer?

1. Functionalis
-Sloughed off at menstruation

2. Basalis
-Retained after menstruation and proliferates to provide new epithelium and lamina propria

36

What lies deep within the basalis?

The uterine glands which are the source of cells that divide and migrate to form the new epithelial lining

37

What are the 3 layers of the wall of the vagina?

1. Mucosa
-Stratified squamous epithelium
2. Muscular
-Smooth muscle (longitudinal)
3. Adventitia

38

Where does the mucus found in the vagina come from?

Glands of the uterine cervix

39

DID NOT MAKE CARDS FOR

MAMMARY GLANDS!