Flashcards in Female Histology Deck (39)
What are the two major functions of the ovaries?
1. Produce the female gametes
2. Produce the steroid hormones that prepare the endometrium for conception and maintain preg should fert occur
What are the two regions of the ovaries and what is within them?
-Contains rich vascular bed with cellular loose CT
-Ovarian follicles reside here
What are granulosa cells
They are follicular cells that surround an ovarian follicle
What are primoridal follicles?
Before birth, primoridal germ cells proliferate by mitotic division until they number in the millions. After they are arrested in prophase of M1, they are called primordial follicles
Around time of sexual maturity, primoridal follicles undergo further growth to become primary follicles in which the oocyte is surrounded by two or more layers of cuboidal epithelial cells
Follicular cells as the oocyte enlarges (during menstrual cycle)
A thick layer of glycoportein that is secreted as the oocyte enlarges (during menstrual cycle) between the oocyte and granulosa cells
Once the zona pellucida is made, the stroma surrounding the follicle differentiates into a cellular layer called the theca folliculi which are separated from granulosa cells by a thick basement membrane
What are the zones of the theca?
1. Theca interna
-synth androgenic steroids which are converted to estradiol by granulosa cells after diffusing into follicle
2. Theca externa
-Mostly connective tissue
Large, fluid filled cavity. Marks the point of secondary follicles
Thickened area of the granulosa where the full sized oocyte is situated
1. Mature follicle that has completed its first meiotic division (Haploid, 2N).
2. Greatly enlarged antrum
3. Cumulus oophorus diminishes leaving the oocyte surrounded by the corona radiata.
Where is the first polar body?
What stage of meiosis occurs at just before ovulation?
The graafian follicle continues meiosis and progresses to metaphase M2, then arrests until fertilization
Follicular cells and oocytes die and are phagocytized. Maximal at birth, during puberty and during pregnancy
during each cycle, some follicles develop but by mid-cycle only one ovulates, the rest undergo atresia
What stimulates ovulation and where is it secreted?
Lots of LH secreted by anterior pituitary gland
What is ovulation?
Rupture of mature follicle and liberation of the ovum. Ovum is viable for 24 hours, after which it undergoes autolysis in the oviduct
Formed from the wall of the follicle that becomes infolded. Is a temporary endocrine gland.
What happens during the period of corpus luteum development?
1. Blood vessels and stroma invade previously avascular layer of granulosa cells
2. Granulosa cells and theca interna cells hypertrophy to form lutein cells
What do granulosa lutein secrete?
Progesterone and estrogen
What do Theca lutein cells secrete?
Androstenedione and progesterone
What does progesterone do?
Prevents development of new follicles, thus preventing ovulation
How long does the corpus luteum last in absence of pregnancy?
Scar of dense connective tissue where the corpus luteum was
What happens to the corpus luteum with pregnancy?
HCG produced by placenta stimulates it for 6 mo
Part of oviduct that opens into peritoneal cavity to receive ovum
What directs ovum to tube?
Fimbriae, which extend from the end of the tube and envelop the ovulation site to direct the ovum to the tube
Part of ovum next to ampulla, small
Part of ovum that penetrates the wall of the uterus
What are the 3 layers of the wall of the oviduct?
-Longitudinal folds, most numerous in ampulla, simple columnar epithelium
3. Serosa composed of visceral peritoneum
Kartagener's syndrome in women
Not infertile so ciliary action is not essential
Tubal ectopic pregnancy
Fertilized ovum implants in wall of oviduct
What are the components of the uterus?
2. Internal os
-narrowing of the uterine cavity
-Lower cylindrical structure
What are the three layers of the alls of the uterus?
1. Outer serosa
-CT and mesothelium
-->depending on what part of the uterus
-Grows during pregnancy
-Mucosa of the uterus
-Epithelium and lamina propria
What are the zones of the endometrial layer?
-Sloughed off at menstruation
-Retained after menstruation and proliferates to provide new epithelium and lamina propria
What lies deep within the basalis?
The uterine glands which are the source of cells that divide and migrate to form the new epithelial lining
What are the 3 layers of the wall of the vagina?
-Stratified squamous epithelium
-Smooth muscle (longitudinal)
Where does the mucus found in the vagina come from?
Glands of the uterine cervix