Flashcards in Menopause Deck (26)
What are the health risks associated with menopause?
CVD (total LDL levels rise), osteoporosis, urogenital atrophy (pee issues), quality of life
What is the ave age of menopause in USA
What happens in ovarian development in week 4 of the fetus
-Appearance of primordial germ cells in yolk sac
-Migration of germ cells to genital ridge
-Germ cell mitosis
What happens in ovarian development in week 6 of the fetus
-Germ cells arrive at genital ridge
-Sex cord formation supports germ cells
What happens in ovarian development in week 8-12 of the fetus
-Reproductive tract differentiation
-Initiation of meiosis
-oogonia become oocytes
-Meiotic arrest in P1
What happens in ovarian development in weeks 16-20 of the fetus
-Ovarian follicular formation
-Max oocyte number achieved (5-7 million)
What happens in the ovary in prepubescent state?
-Waves of follicular development and atresia
-No stimulation of ovary by pituitary gland
-Minimal estrogen production
-No ovulation occurs
How many germ cells does a female have by puberty?
About how many oocytes are selected to ovulate
400-500 (most undergo atresia)
Describe the rate of follicular atresia
Not fixed, becomes more rapid 10-15 years before menopause
The point in time when permanent cessation of menstruation occurs following the loss of ovarian activity (naturally or surgically)
-This is a retrospective diagnosis (12 mo w/o pd)
-FSH and LH are high, low estrogen
What is perimenopause
Time with menstrual irregularity and symptoms
What factors are related to age of onset of menopause
-Smoking dec age by 1.5yrs
-Dietary habits (veg younger than meat)
-Alcohol consumption and later
What is the health risks associated with perimenopause and post menopause?
What are the menopausal symptoms?
Hot flash, urogential atrophy, muscoluskeletal symptoms, disordered sleep, mood (inc and exacerbated mood disorders)
What does smoking do to estrogen metabolism
Increases it! Thats why you hit menopause earlier and have more symptoms when you smoke
What are some risk factors for dev menopausal symptoms?
Smoking, african american, obesity
Treatment of menopausal symptoms
-Hormone replacement therapy
-Behavioral: diet, wt loss, dec smoking etc
What is the prev of premature ovarian insufficiency?
What is premature ovarian insufficiency?
Cessation of ovarian fxn at or before 40y/o
How do you diagnose premature ovarian insufficiency?
High FSH/LH and concurrent low estradiol on two sep occasions at least 1 mo apart
Etiology of premature ovarian insufficiency?
-Autoimmune attack on ovaries
-Iatrogenic exposures (chemo etc)
Describe a genetic abnormality that leads to premature ovarian insufficiencey
Turner's Syndrome, 45X-->premature ovarian failure and delayed puberty, both X chromosomes are req to be active in the ovary to ensure normal dev and maintenance of oocyte number. Get rapid atresia of oocytes.
Describe how chemo/radiation lead to premature ovarian insufficiencey
Effects of chemo/radiation depends on age of pt at time of exposure, treatment field, type, dose, duration
-Chemo causes damage to primordial follicles, alkylating agents are particularly damaging
-Radiation to the pelvis=more damaging due to scatter
What is a treatment option for premature ovarian insufficiencey
Hormone replacement therapy, fertility preservation in those treated for cancer (like IVF or oophoropexy where ovaries are surgically moved away from radiation field)