Pathophys of Fetus and Placenta Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pathophys of Fetus and Placenta Deck (24)
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What is the placenta derived from?

Trophectoderm of developing blastocyst


Describe the flow of oxygenated blood in the fetus

Oxy blood comes in through umbilical vein, shunted past liver through ductus venosus-->IVC-->R atrium-->foramen ovale-->L. atrium-->L ventricle-->ascending aorta

Blood from the SVC flows downward into the right ventricle-->pul arteries-->ductus arteriosus to bypass lungs-->descending aorta-->circulation and out umbilical arteries


What is a failed transformation of the spinal arteries?

When the trophoblasts don't dilate the maternal vessels enough


What are the functions of the trophoblasts?

-Hormone production (syncytiotrophoblasts mostly)
-Nutrient transport
-Prevents immune rejection via HLA-G


Describe syncytiotrophoblasts

-Polarized epithelium
-Release hormones into maternal circulation
-->hCG, estriol, hCS, progesterone


What is the pattern of hCG secretion during pregnancy?

-hCG is detected in maternal serum 8 days after ovulation (1 day post implantation)
-Levels initially double every 1.4 days
-After 5th week levels double every 2.3 days
-Placental hCG secretion declines to low levels after 10 wks


What produces hCG early and late?

Early: cytotrophoblasts
Late: syncytiotrophoblasts (after 6 wks gestation)


What does hCG do?

-Maintains corpus luteum
-Stimulates mom's thyroid by binding to TSH receptors
-If we have antisera to hCG in early gestation, get pregnancy termination


How do we monitor early pregnacny?

-hCG double times
-Distinguish between intrauterine and etopic preg
-Use ultrasound


What is the primary site of steroidogenesis



Where do steroid hormones go after being released?

Maternal circulation


What enzyme does the fetal adrenal gland lack?

3beta HSD (dont memorize name) so it cannot convert DHEA to testosterone or estrogen

It also cannot convert pregnenolone to cortisol


What enzyme does the placenta lack?

P450c17 (dont memorize name) so it cannot convert pregnenolone to DHEA


How do the fetal adrenal gland and placenta work together?

So the placenta can't make DHEA, but the fetus can. And the festus can't make estrogen, but the placenta can. DHEA from the fetus will then go to the placenta where it is converted to estradiol.


What does progesterone do?

Maintains hospitable uterine environment by preparing endometrium for implantation, suppressing maternal immune rejection of trophoblasts, relaxes smooth muscle to prevent uterine contraction, prevents Ca channel biosynth and gap jxn formation to promote uterine quiescence and stop contractions


What produces progesterone and until when?

Corpus luteum until 10 weeks
Placenta afterward
-progressive inc in maternal blood progesterone levels during preg, eventually receptors switch and its effects are diminished at the end of pregnancy


Where is estrogen derived during pregnancy?

Early preg: derived from maternal blood stream
By wk 20: derived from fetal androgens


What are the 3 types of estrogen?

E1: Estrone, 1/10th as potent as estradiol; variable levels preclude clinical applications, made mostly by placenta
E2: Estradiol: equal amts arise from maternal and fetal DHEAS
E3: Estriol, 1/100th as potent as estradiol. Most of estrogen in pregnancy. Derived from fetal adrenal only =(marker for fetal aneuploidy and wellbeing)


What are the 2 zones of the fetal adrenal gland?

Thick inner and thin outer


Describe the inner zone of the fetal adrenal gland

Thick inner fetal zone comprises >80% of the bulk of the gland. It rapidly involutes after delivery and it produces lots of DHEAS and very little cortisol


What stimulates steroidogenesis in the fetal adrenal cortex?

fetal ACTH with no neg feedback from cortisol


What are the actions of estrogens?

-Fetal control of maternal physiology
-Vasodilation of siral arteries
-->placental CRH, myometrial gap jxn formation, mammary epithelial cell proliferation


Where does maternal-fetal exchange of nutrients and waste occur?

Placental villi


What supports the corpus luteum early in preg?