Female Internal Reproductive Organs Pt. 2/Perineal Triangles Flashcards Preview

Gross II Final > Female Internal Reproductive Organs Pt. 2/Perineal Triangles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Internal Reproductive Organs Pt. 2/Perineal Triangles Deck (98):
1

What are the functions of the vagina?

Female organ of copulation, lower portion of birth canal, and excretory duct for the products of menstruation

2

How does the vaginal canal communicate with the cervical canal above it?

Through the external os

3

How does the vaginal canal communicated with the vestibule below it?

Through the vaginal orifice

4

Where do the fundus of the bladder and the urethra lie in reference to the vagina?

Anterior

5

Where does the rectum lie in reference to the vagina?

Posterior

6

What is the recess between the cervix and the walls of the vagina?

Fornix

7

What are the three parts of the fornix?

Anterior, two lateral, and posterior fornices

8

What is the superior, expanded portion of the vagina below the cervix?

Vaginal vault

9

What is the vagina supported by?

Levator ani, perineal body, perineal membrane, ligament (pubocervical, transverse cervical, uterosacral)

10

What is the blood supply to the vagina?

Uterine artery and vaginal artery

11

What artery is the direct supply to the upper part of the vagina specifically?

Uterine artery

12

What are the lymphatics that are associated with the vagina?

Internal iliac (upper 3/4) and superficial inguinal nodes (lower 1/4)

13

What is the innervation of the vagina?

Pudendal nerve (lowermost part) and uterovaginal plexus

14

What specific area of the only part of the vagina that really has sensation?

Lowermost part

15

What is rectocele?

Bulging of the rectum into the posterior wall of the vagina

16

Rectocele can cause what issue?

Difficulty in defecation

17

What is cystocele?

Bulging of the bladder into the anterior wall of the vagina

18

Cystocele can cause what issue?

Difficulty in micturition

19

What is uterine prolapse?

When the uterus slips down into the vagina and descends to an abnormally low level in the pelvis

20

What are risk factors associated with uterine prolapse?

Multiple births, retroverted uterus

21

During uterine prolapse, what can also happen to the cervix?

It may protrude externally through the vaginal orifice

22

Inflammation of uterine lining, retroverted uterus, or traction of a large uterus on the uterosacral ligament may cause what type of pain?

Sacral

23

Severe menstrual cramps may be associated with subluxations of what location?

L1 or L2

24

What is the part of the trunk below the pelvis diaphragm called?

Perineum

25

The perineum has the same boundaries as what structure?

Pelvic outlet

26

What shape is the perineum?

Diamond

27

What divides the perineum into two triangles?

A transverse line connecting the two ischial tuberosities

28

What are the two triangles creating from the division of the perineum?

Urogenital triangle (anteriorly) and anal triangle (posteriorly)

29

In anatomical position, which triangle of the perineum lies in the horizontal plane?

Urogenital

30

In anatomical position, which triangle of the perineum is tilted upward?

Anal triangle

31

What are the boundaries of the urogenital triangle?

Pubic symphysis (anterior), ischiopubic rami (anterolateral), transverse line through ischial tuberosities (posterior)

32

What are the layers of the urogenital triangle?

Skin, superficial perineal pouch, perineal membrane, deep perineal pouch, inferior fascia of the pelvis diaphragm

33

What are the two layers of the superficial perineal pouch?

Superficial perineal fascia and deep perineal fascia

34

Which layer of the superficial perineal pouch includes a fatty layer superficially and a membranous layer that is deep?

Superficial perineal fascia

35

What is another name for the membranous (deep) layer of the superficial perineal fascia?

Colles' fascia

36

Colles' fascia is continuous with what structures?

Both the dartos layer of the scrotum and Scarpa's fascia

37

What part of the superficial perineal pouch intimately invests the muscles of that area?

Deep perineal fascia

38

(Colles' fascia) is fused anteriorly with what ligament?

Suspensory ligament of the penis (or clitoris)

39

The bulb and crus of the superficial perineal pouch are composed with what type of tissue?

cavernous erectile CONNECTIVE tissue (NOT MUSCLE)

40

What is an episiotomy?

Incision done during parturition from the posterior vaginal wall to the perineal body

41

What is the purpose of an episiotomy?

To prevent uncontrolled muscle tearing during parturition

42

What is the fibromuscular mass located in the center of the perineum between the anal canal and bulb of the penis (or vagina)?

Perineal body

43

The perineal body is an important attachment site for which muscles?

Superficial transverse perineal, deep transverse perineal, bulbospongiosus, levator ani, and sphincter ani externus

44

What muscle is important to note that does NOT have an attachment to the perineal body?

Ischiocavernosus

45

What is the origin of the superficial transverse perineal muscle?

Ischial tuberosity

46

What is the insertion of the superficial transverse perineal muscle?

Perineal body

47

What is the innervation of the superficial transverse perineal muscle?

Perineal branch of pudendal nerve

48

What is the function of the superficial transverse perineal muscle?

Stabilizes the perineal body

49

What is the origin of the ischiocavernosus muscle?

Medial surface of ischial tuberosity and ischiopubic ramus

50

What is the insertion of the ischiocavernosus muscle?

Crus of the penis or clitoris

51

What is the innervation of the ischiocavernosus muscle?

Perineal branch of pudendal nerve

52

What is the function of the ischiocavernosus muscle?

Impedes venous return by compressing the crus of the penis or clitoris, thereby maintaining erection

53

What is the origin of the bulbospongiosus muscle in males?

Perineal body, median raphe of the bulb of the penis

54

What is the insertion of the bulbospongiosus muscle in males?

Corpus spongiosum, deep fascia on dorsum of penis

55

What is the innervation of the bulbospongiosus muscle in both sexes?

Perineal branch of pudendal nerve

56

What is the function of the bulbospongiosus muscle in males?

Impedes venous return by compression the bulb of the penis, thereby maintaining erection. It also constricts the corpus spongiosum to empty the urethra at the end of micturition and during ejaculation

57

What is the origin of the bulbospongiosus muscle in females?

Perineal body, fibers surround the bulb of the vestibule and vagina

58

What is the insertion of the bulbospongiosus muscle in females?

Pubic arch and corpus cavernosum of clitoris

59

What is the function of the bulbospongiosus muscle in females?

Constricts the vaginal orifice and maintains erection of clitoris

60

What are the two ovoid glands located in the superficial perineal pouch of the female?

Greater vestibular glands

61

The greater vestibular glands lie where in reference to the bulb of the vestibule?

Posterior

62

Where do the ducts of the greater vestibular glands open?

Into the vestibule along the posterolateral margin of the vaginal orifice

63

The greater vestibular gland is homologous to what male structure?

Bulbourethral gland

64

What is the main function of the greater vestibular glands?

Lubrication of the vagina during sexual intercourse

65

Parasympathetic activation of what cord levels occur during erection?

S2, S3, S4

66

What arteries are dilated within the corpora cavernosa during erection?

Small, coiled arteries called helicine arteries

67

What two muscles are important for maintain erection?

Bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus

68

Where is the deep perineal pouch located?

Between the perineal membrane and inferior fascia of the pelvic diaphragm

69

Where is the superficial perineal pouch located?

Between the superficial perineal fascia and the perineal membrane

70

What are the contents of the superficial perineal pouch?

Perineal body, superficial transverse perineal muscle, ischiocavernosus muscle, crura of the penis (or clitoris), bulbospongiosus muscle, bulb of the penis (or vestibule), greater vestibular gland (females), branches of the internal pudendal artery and pudendal nerve

71

What are the contents of the deep perineal pouch?

Deep transverse perineal muscle, external urethral sphincter, intermediate part of the urethra (membranous part), bulbourethral gland (males), branches of the internal pudendal artery and pudendal nerve

72

What is the origin of the deep transverse perineal muscle?

Medial surface of ischial ramus

73

What is the insertion of the deep transverse perineal muscle?

Perineal body and median raphe (males) or wall of the vagina (females)

74

What is the innervation of the deep transverse perineal muscle?

Perineal branch of the pudendal nerve

75

What is the function of the deep transverse perineal muscle?

Stabilizes the perineal body and supports the prostate gland or vagina

76

What part of the external urethral sphincter in males is the true anatomical sphincter which encircles the urethra below the prostate?

Inferior part

77

Which part of the external urethral sphincter in males is the trough-like portion which extends up to the neck of the bladder, investing anterior part of prostatic urethra within the isthmus of the prostate?

Superior part

78

What structure is commonly damaged during parturition and results in what issue?

External urethral sphincter, urinary incontinence

79

What part of the female external urethral sphincter muscle is the inferior part that encircles both the urethra and vagina?

Sphincter urethrovaginalis

80

What part of the female external urethral sphincter muscle originates from the ischiopubic ramus on each side and forms a band anterior to the urethra?

Compressor urethrae

81

What part of the female external urethral sphincter muscle is the trough-like portion which extends to the neck of the bladder?

Superior part

82

What is the nerve supply to the external urethral sphincter muscle in both sexes?

Perineal branch of pudendal

83

What is the function of the external urethral sphincter muscle (in both sexes)?

Compresses urethra at the end of micturition

84

What are the two glands that lie posterolateral to the intermediate (membranous) part of the urethra in the male?

Bulbourethral glands

85

Where do the ducts of the bulbourethral glands empty?

After passing downward through the perineal membrane into the bulb of the penis, they empty into the spongy urethra

86

The bulbourethral glands are homologous to what female structure?

Greater vestibular glands

87

What type of substance is created by the bulbourethral glands of the male?

Mucous-like

88

What are the boundaries of the anal triangle?

Transverse line through ischial tuberosities (anterior), sacrotuberous ligaments (posterolateral), tip of the coccyx (posterior)

89

Which triangle of the perineum divisions is equal in both sexes?

Anal triangle

90

What is contained in the anal triangle?

Anal canal, external anal sphincter, and ischioanal fossa

91

What is the space which lies on either side of the anal canal that extends between the skin of the anal region below and the inferior surface of the pelvis diaphragm above?

Ischioanal fossa

92

What forms the lateral wall of the ischioanal fossa?

Obturator fascia

93

What is contained within the ischioanal fossa?

Fat, pudendal canal (and contents), inferior rectal nerve and vessels, perineal branch of posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh

94

The anterior recesses of the ischioanal fossa extend where?

Anteriorly into the urogenital triangle

95

What ligament connects the external anal sphincter to coccyx?

Anococcygeal ligament

96

The pudendal canal (formed by obturator fascia) is located on what part of the ischioanal fossa?

Lateral wall

97

What structures are transmitted through the pudendal canal?

Internal pudendal vessels, pudendal nerve

98

What is the purpose of fat in the ischoanal fossa?

Allows distention of the anal canal