Kidney Flashcards Preview

Gross II Final > Kidney > Flashcards

Flashcards in Kidney Deck (55):
1

What is the overall function of the kidney?

To remove water, salts, and products of protein metabolism from the blood

2

What shape is the kidney?

Bean-shaped

3

Is the kidney intra- or retroperitoneal?

Retroperitoneal

4

The kidney extends from what vertebrae levels?

T12-L3

5

Which kidney lies slightly lower than the other?

Right kidney

6

Why does the right kidney lie slightly lower than the left kidney?

Due to the large size of the right lobe of the liver

7

The kidneys lie where in reference to the psoas major muscle?

Anterior

8

The kidneys lie where in reference to the vertebral column?

Lateral

9

What is the space called where the kidneys lie lateral to the vertebral column?

Paravertebral grooves

10

A strain of what muscle is commonly mistaken as kidney pain?

Psoas major

11

What is the unique name given to the top and bottom areas of the kidneys?

Superior and inferior poles

12

The hilum of the kidney is a fissure in what direction?

Vertical

13

The hilum of the kidney is located on what surface?

Medial

14

What four things does the hilum of the kidney transmit?

Renal vein (anteriorly), renal artery (between renal vein and ureter), ureter (posteriorly), and autonomic & sensory nerves

15

What is the expanded superior end of the ureter within the hilum?

Renal pelvis

16

What is the recess called located within the hilum that is filled with fat?

Renal sinus

17

The structures that enter the hilum are known collectively by what term?

Renal pedicle

18

What is the posteriormost organ at the abdominal level?

Kidney

19

What is the outer portion of the kidney called?

Renal cortex

20

What are the projections of the cortex into the medulla between the renal pyramids?

Renal columns

21

What is the inner portion of the kidney?

Medulla

22

The renal medulla includes about how many renal pyramids?

8-12

23

What is the apex termination of the renal pyramid?

Renal papilla

24

What are the cup shaped structures into which the renal papillae fit?

Minor calices

25

What are the 2-3 major channels into which the minor calices empty?

Major calices

26

Where do the major calices empty?

Renal pelvis

27

What artery is the main arterial blood supply of the kidney?

Renal artery

28

From where does the renal artery arise?

Abdominal aorta

29

What are the accessory arteries of the kidney?

Extrahilar arteries

30

From where do the extrahilar arteries arise?

Abdominal aorta above or below the renal artery

31

What vein makes up the venous blood supply to the kidney?

Renal vein

32

To where does the renal vein drain?

Inferior vena cava

33

In addition to the left kidney, what else does the left renal vein drain?

Suprarenal gland, gonad, diaphragm, and body wall

34

What structures can be compressed with Anatomical Nutcracker Compression Syndrome?

Left renal vein, 3rd part of the duodenum

35

What two vessels are responsible for the compression in Anatomical Nutcracker?

Superior mesenteric artery (front) and aorta (behind)

36

If the 3rd part of the duodenum is compressed with Anatomical Nutcracker, what can result?

Left side kidney failure and vomiting

37

What are the causes of Anatomical Nutcracker Compression Syndrome?

Compressive abdominal trauma, Cast Syndrome (application of a body cast that is too tight), aortic aneurysm

38

What is the main nerve involved in kidney innervation?

Least splanchnic nerve (T12)

39

What is the overall innervation of the kidney?

Renal plexus

40

The renal plexus is formed by fibers from what locations?

Celiac plexus, aortic plexus, direct branches from the thoracic and lumbar splanchnic nerves

41

What are the functions of the fat around the kidneys?

Protection, insulation, support (attachment to the posterior wall)

42

What are the layers covering the kidneys?

Renal capsule (innermost), perinephric fat, renal fascia, paranephric fat (outermost)

43

What is the membranous layer of extraperitoneal tissue which splits into anterior and posterior layers to enclose the kidney?

Renal fascia

44

What is the scientific term for kidney stones?

Renal calculi

45

What may renal calculi be composed of?

Calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid crystals

46

What are the risk factors for renal calculi?

Being male, low fluid intake/dehydration, southeastern U.S.A.

47

What is the pain pathway of renal calculi?

Dull ache in the kidney followed by severe pain when they enter the ureter

48

What happens if renal calculi become lodged in the ureter?

Restriction of urinary flow

49

What is a possible treatment to break up renal calculi?

Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

50

Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) doesn't work for renal calculi of what composition?

Uric acid crystals

51

What is the nickname for nephroptosis?

"Floating Kidney"

52

What is nephroptosis?

When the kidney becomes hypermobile and moves downward within the renal fascia

53

Where can the kidney descend to during nephroptosis?

Into the pelvis

54

During nephroptosis, what movement can lead to the twisting of blood vessels and the ureter?

The kidney turning upside down

55

Nephroptosis is more common among what group of people?

Very thin people