Flashcards in Kidney Deck (55):
What is the overall function of the kidney?
To remove water, salts, and products of protein metabolism from the blood
What shape is the kidney?
Is the kidney intra- or retroperitoneal?
The kidney extends from what vertebrae levels?
Which kidney lies slightly lower than the other?
Why does the right kidney lie slightly lower than the left kidney?
Due to the large size of the right lobe of the liver
The kidneys lie where in reference to the psoas major muscle?
The kidneys lie where in reference to the vertebral column?
What is the space called where the kidneys lie lateral to the vertebral column?
A strain of what muscle is commonly mistaken as kidney pain?
What is the unique name given to the top and bottom areas of the kidneys?
Superior and inferior poles
The hilum of the kidney is a fissure in what direction?
The hilum of the kidney is located on what surface?
What four things does the hilum of the kidney transmit?
Renal vein (anteriorly), renal artery (between renal vein and ureter), ureter (posteriorly), and autonomic & sensory nerves
What is the expanded superior end of the ureter within the hilum?
What is the recess called located within the hilum that is filled with fat?
The structures that enter the hilum are known collectively by what term?
What is the posteriormost organ at the abdominal level?
What is the outer portion of the kidney called?
What are the projections of the cortex into the medulla between the renal pyramids?
What is the inner portion of the kidney?
The renal medulla includes about how many renal pyramids?
What is the apex termination of the renal pyramid?
What are the cup shaped structures into which the renal papillae fit?
What are the 2-3 major channels into which the minor calices empty?
Where do the major calices empty?
What artery is the main arterial blood supply of the kidney?
From where does the renal artery arise?
What are the accessory arteries of the kidney?
From where do the extrahilar arteries arise?
Abdominal aorta above or below the renal artery
What vein makes up the venous blood supply to the kidney?
To where does the renal vein drain?
Inferior vena cava
In addition to the left kidney, what else does the left renal vein drain?
Suprarenal gland, gonad, diaphragm, and body wall
What structures can be compressed with Anatomical Nutcracker Compression Syndrome?
Left renal vein, 3rd part of the duodenum
What two vessels are responsible for the compression in Anatomical Nutcracker?
Superior mesenteric artery (front) and aorta (behind)
If the 3rd part of the duodenum is compressed with Anatomical Nutcracker, what can result?
Left side kidney failure and vomiting
What are the causes of Anatomical Nutcracker Compression Syndrome?
Compressive abdominal trauma, Cast Syndrome (application of a body cast that is too tight), aortic aneurysm
What is the main nerve involved in kidney innervation?
Least splanchnic nerve (T12)
What is the overall innervation of the kidney?
The renal plexus is formed by fibers from what locations?
Celiac plexus, aortic plexus, direct branches from the thoracic and lumbar splanchnic nerves
What are the functions of the fat around the kidneys?
Protection, insulation, support (attachment to the posterior wall)
What are the layers covering the kidneys?
Renal capsule (innermost), perinephric fat, renal fascia, paranephric fat (outermost)
What is the membranous layer of extraperitoneal tissue which splits into anterior and posterior layers to enclose the kidney?
What is the scientific term for kidney stones?
What may renal calculi be composed of?
Calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid crystals
What are the risk factors for renal calculi?
Being male, low fluid intake/dehydration, southeastern U.S.A.
What is the pain pathway of renal calculi?
Dull ache in the kidney followed by severe pain when they enter the ureter
What happens if renal calculi become lodged in the ureter?
Restriction of urinary flow
What is a possible treatment to break up renal calculi?
Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) doesn't work for renal calculi of what composition?
Uric acid crystals
What is the nickname for nephroptosis?
What is nephroptosis?
When the kidney becomes hypermobile and moves downward within the renal fascia
Where can the kidney descend to during nephroptosis?
Into the pelvis
During nephroptosis, what movement can lead to the twisting of blood vessels and the ureter?
The kidney turning upside down