Female Reproductive system Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Female Reproductive system > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female Reproductive system Deck (25):

Name the female gonad.



Describe the supporting structures of the ovary

-The ovarian ligament from ovary to uterus
-mesovarium from ovary to broad ligament
-suspensory ligament from ovary to dorsal body wall


Describe oogenesis

-Oogonia are diploid and can undergo mitosis to replenish themselves in the fetus
-oogonia then become destine to undergo meiosis and become primary oocytes
-they start through meiosis 1 and stop halfway through (At birth)
-at puberty the primary oocytes finish their meiosis 1 and start to meiosis II
-They stop halfway through meiosis II and do not finish until just prior to fertilization
-at this time the secondary oocyte briefly becomes an ovum (haploid)
- then is fertilized and becomes a zygote (diploid)
-females are born with all the primary oocytes (eggs) that she will ever have


Define a follicle and a corpus leteum

-follicle- bag- it is the oocyte plus all of the surrounding cells
-after ovulation the secondary oocyte is ejected and the follicle cell stays in ovary, This is the corpus leteum


Describe follicular development

-starting with puberty and ending with menopause
-FSH causes the follicles to mature
-As they enlarge, they release estrogen
-at day 14 the female ovulates leaving behind the corpus luteum
-this continues to make estrogen, but now it makes progesterone too


Define ovulation and explain when it occurs during the monthly cycle

-discharge of an egg from the ovary (day 14)
(day 1 is the first day of menstrual bleeding of 28 day cycle)


Name the structure that catches the egg upon ovulation

-oviduct=uterine tube=fallopian tube
- with its widened infundibulum
- and dingers called fimbriae


Name the structure that transports the ova from ovaries to uterus



Name the thin sheet like ligament suspending the uterus to the pelvic wall

-broad ligament


Describe the location of the cervix

-inferior (doorway) into uterus


name the 3 lates of the uterine wall

-perimetrium (seroca)


describe the glands that makes and the function GnRH

-made by the hypothalamus
-starts puberty and starts the period
-its role is to stiumulate anterior pituitary gland to make FSH and LH


describe the glands that makes and the function of FSH

-made by hypothalamus, released by anterior pituitary gland
-Stimulated by GnRH
-causes follicle menstruation over the first couple weeks


describe the glands that makes and the function LH

-Made by the hypothalamus, released by Ant. Pituitary
-Stimulated by GnRH
-By day 14 the LH levels spike resulting in ovulation


describe the glands that makes and the function of Estrogen

-As the follicle enlarges, it also makes more estrogen
- A positive feed back on hypothalamus, causes high levels of hormones
-stimulates the thickness of the endometrium
-Stimulates GnRH release


describe the glands that makes and the function of Pogesterone

-made by the follicle cells after ovulation
-inhibits GnRH release which results in a thick endometrium
-After ovulation the corpus luteum makes both estrogen and progesterone.
-The 2 hormones (Estrogen) case a very thick endometrium and work to inhibit the other hormones by stopping the GnRH production


Describe the physical and hormonal changes that affects the uterus during the menstrual cycle

-With out supportive hormones such as FSH and LH the corpus luteum dies by about day 28. Without progesterone and estrogen to support it, the endometrium also dies, and is sloughed off during the first 3-5 days of the next cycle.


Describe the cause of menopause. Define menarche

-Menarche- first menstrual cycle marking puberty in a girl
-menopause- a female runs out of eggs, there fore will not have follicular hormones present
-estrogen and progesterone


Describe the location of the fornix and hymen

-in the vag surrounding the cervix
-the hymen is the thin vascularized membrane at the inferiour end of the vagine that must be ruptured durring intercours


Describe the parts of the vulva or external female genitalia

-Vestibule is the opening that houses the vagina and urethral orifice
-labia major are the lateral folds of skin
-labia minor are the mucous membrane (lips)
-clitoris is erectile tissue homologous in the embryology to the penis of the male
-located at the anterior junction of the labia majora and mons pubis


The mammary gland is located over what muscle

-Pectoralis major


Describe the anatomy and function of the mammary gland

-anatomy: lobes and lobules
-in the lobules are alveoli that make milk
-milk travels through the lactiferous ducts and widened sinus to the nipple
-lactation is the function


Define lactation

-milk production


Describe the neural and hormonal pathways of milk production and letdown

-Human Placental lactogen prepares the mammary glands during pregnancy
-prolactin- made by the anterior pituitary causes milk production
- actual sucking by the baby stimulates more release of prolactin
-Oxytocin is the hormone that is made by the hypothalamus released by the posterior pituitary
-it causes the milk let down
-it is present during childbirth and then its continuous release comes from the baby sucking on the nipples


Describe the females sexual responses to stimulation

--SNS initiates the orgasm
-the same as males but there is no ejaculation