Flashcards in Respitory System Deck (58):
Name the organs in order and their basic function included in the respiratory system
-nose nasal cavity-filtration, moisten air, warm, smell, mucus, resonate sound
-Pharynx- tonsils (uvula)
-laryngopharynx- made of cartilages, mucus membrane, voice
-Trachae- rings of cartilage, branches into bronchi
-bronchi- tree primary enters lungs, second enters each lobe, tertiary braches w/i lobe
-Bronchioles- small, smooth muscle ends in terminal bronchiole that connect to alveoli
Name the bones forming the floor, roof, and walls of the nasal cavity.
-palatine process of maxilla & palatine (=hard palate)
-Nasal & frontal & ethmoid & sphenoid
- Maxillae and Nasal Conchae
Name the bones and cartilage forming the nasal septum
-perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone
Define a paranasal sinus
-Hollowed cavity in skull bone that communicates with nasal cavity.
- Frontal, Maxilla, Ethmoid & Sphenoid bones have a sinus.
-Sinuses serve to make mucus, lighten the skull and resonate sound
Name the 3 conchae and the grooves between them
-inferior Conchae with Superior, Middle, Inferior Meatuses
Describe the boundaries for each of the 3 parts of the pharynx
-Nasopharynx- Internal nares- soft palate
Locate the tonsils in the pharynx
-Adenoid aka pharyngeal tonsil (nasopharynx)
Describe the function of the tonsils
-Lymphatic function, trapping microorganisms, making lymphocytes, fighting infection first location in body.
Define the adenoid and uvula
-Uvula is also lymphatic tissue hanging from soft palate.
-Adenoids are the pharyngeal tonsils
Identify the location of the opening to the eustachian tubes
- between nasopharynx and the middle ear
-function: ear pressure
Name the 9 cartilages of the larynx
-Epiglottis-1 (triangle flap, swallowing reflex)
-cricoid-1 (ring inferior of larynx)
-Arytenoid-2 (anchor vocal cords)
- Corniculate- 2 (on artenoids, small bumps)
-Cuneiform- 2 (posterior side)
Describe the function of the epiglottis
-Triangle like flap of elastic cartilage for the swallowing reflex
-Prevents choking - closes glottis when swallowing
Describe how sound is produced for our voice. What is the function of the ventricular folds
-As you exhale, the air vibrates the vocal cords.
-You have muscles to make the vocal cords tighter (higher tones) or looser (lower tones)
-resonating chambers in nasal cavity & sinuses as well as tongue and lips for enunciation
Name the tissue that the trachea is made of
-Incomplete cartilaginous rings
- Rings of c shaped cartilage inferior end of trachae
Describe the distribution of cartilage and smooth muscle in the bronchial tree
-As you descend the bronchial tree, the amount of cartilage decreases and amount of smooth muscle increases.
How many lung lobes are in each human lung
- Left- 2
- Right- 3
Describe the mediastinum
-Membranous tissue surrounding all thoracic organs except lungs
Define visceral and parietal pleura and pleural cavity
-parietal pluera- shiny lining of the thoracic cavity
-visceral pleura- shiny lung covering
-Plural cavity- in between with just a couple drops of ceris to prevent friction
-Tiny sac at the end of the terminal bronchioles
- where diffusion (exchanges of gases) occurs with blood vessels.
Describe the alveolar-capillary memebrane
-1 cell layer
- capable of diffusion
Describe where and how gas (co2 and o2) exchange takes place
Describe the overall function of the respiratory system
-Ventilation & gas exchange
Explain Boyle's Law
- Pressure in a closed container is proportional to volume of container
-Ventilation is moving air in and out of airways. and
Define inspiration/ inhalation
-Inspiration = inhalation is moving air in
-expiration = exhalation is moving air out.
Define Atomspheric pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, and intrapleural pressure
-760 mm/hg is the atmospheric pressure at sea level
-intrapulmonary- volume decreased pressure increases (lower than atmospheric pressure)
-Intrapleural- between layers to help keep lungs from collapsing (sucking) with the negative pressure
Describe the process of inhalation and the muscles involved
-The diaphragm moves inferiorly, and the ribcage (intercostal muscles) moves up and out.
-This increases the size of the chest which increases the size of the elastic lungs.
-This drops the intrapulmonary pressure lower than atmospheric pressure.
-Air naturally moves along the pressure gradient and into the lungs.
Describe expiration and forced expiration.
-Expiration is passive, in that the breathing muscles relax which returns the diaphragm to a more dome shape and the ribcage moves down and in.
-decreases the size of the chest which decreases the size of the elastic lungs.
-increases intrapulmonary pressure to a level higher than atmospheric pressure.
-Forced expiration is big expiration as in with exercise or a cough.
-abdominal muscles contract & push viscera upward causing the diaphragm to move even more superiorly.
Describe some factors that influence pulmonary air flow
-Parasympathetic stimulation decreases size of airways
-Sympathetic stimulation increases size of airways.
Define surface tension. How does surface tension influence lung expantion
-Water likes water, the alveoli are lined with water,
- arises when like molecules are attracted to each other.
-If the moisture in the alveoli is attracted to each other the alveolus would collapse.
-the surface tension tends to oppose alveolar expansion.
Explain the purpose of pulmonary surfactant and how it relates to respiratory distress in premature babies
-Alveolar cells produce phospholipid surfactant that allows the alveolar sac from collapsing
-This is one of the last things to develop in fetus
- Pre-me could have difficulty breathing if Alveolar sac closes each time.
Define tidal volume
-Volume of air in or out of lungs at rest (500ml)
Define respiratory rate
-12 breaths/min at rest
Define minute respiratory volume
-Tidal Volume x Resting Rate
Define inspiratory reserve volume
-the extra air you could inhale after completing your quiet 500 mls of inhalation.
Define inspiration capacity
- IRV + TV
-inspiratory reserve volume+ Tidal volume
Define expiratory reserve volume
-the extra air you could possible exhale after your quiet 500 mls of exhalation
Define residual volume
-the amount of air that you cannot exhale no matter how hard you try (about 1000-1200 mls) & it helps prevent lung collapse
Define functional residual capacity
-ERV + RV
-Expiration reserve volume+ residual volume
(air left in lungs after exhaling quire tidal volume)
Define vital capacity
VC = TV + ERV + IRV
Tidal volume+ expiratory reserve volume+ inspiratory reserve volume
max air in and out
Define total lung capacity
-Dead air volume is the functionally non useable air because it is somewhere besides your alveoli.
-With a 500 ml breath, only about 350 mls makes it to your alveoli, leaving 150 mls in your nose, trachea ect
Describe dead air volume
- air not in alveoli, cannot extract oxygen
-With a 500 ml breath, only about 350 mls makes it to your alveoli, leaving 150 mls in your nose, trachea....
Describe alveolar ventilation and describe the most efficient means of increasing it
-Tidal Volume-Dead air volume is the amount of air reaching the alveoli. Multiply this by RR if you want a rate.
-The most efficient means of increasing it is by taking deeper breaths - i.e. increasing tidal volume
Describe some control mechanisms to closely match alveolar airflow and blood flow
- Yes they are matched
-pulmonary vessels constrict w low oxygen
-respiratory passage dilate carbon dioxide high
If a section of lung is damaged & has no airflow, then the blood vessels constrict to reroute that blood to functioning areas of the lung
Define partial pressure
-Each gas in the atmosphere contributes to the entire atmospheric pressure
-denoted as (P)
Describe the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the pulmonary capillaries, and between systemic capillaries and body tissue
-If in the alveolus you have PO2 of 105 mmHg and in the blood you have PO2 of 40, the O2 moves into the blood.
-If a starving brain cell has a PO2 of 40 and the surrounding blood capillaries have a PO2 of 105, the O2 moves into the brain cell.
-Same theory for CO2 exchange.
Describe how oxygen is transported in the blood stream
-4 oxygen to one hemogloben
Describe how the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is affected by PO2, pH, PCO2, and DPG
-PO2 is the most important factor in determining if hemoglobin & oxygen are attached or dissociated.
-As PO2 increases, more hemoglobin and oxygen are attached,
-as PO2 decreases (like in the area of an exercising muscle that is starving for O2) then hemoglobin & oxygen dissociate so that the oxygen is available to diffuse into tissues that need it.
-Acid pH, High PCO2 and High DPG shift the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right.
- the oxygen and hemoglobin are MORE likely to dissociate in tissues that have these conditions which indicate high metabolism.
Describe how carbon dioxide is carried in the bloodstream
-Some as CO2 in plasma, some attached to hemoglobin, but MOST in the form of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-
Explain how bicarbonate is formed from water and carbon dioxide
-CO2+H2O H3Co3 h(+) + HC03 (-)
-Carbonic Acid -Bicarbonate ion
Describe the chloride shift
-As bicarbonate moves out of RBC, Chloride must move in for stability (because both Chloride and Bicarbonate are negative)
Describe the generation of the rhythmical breathing movement; include stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms
-Medullary Rhythmicity (inspiratory)Area in the Medulla is the main control of breathing. It causes inspiration.
-The only time the expiratory center needs to be active is when you forcefully exhale, (exhalation is normally passive.)
-In the pons are 2 areas.
- The apneustic area prolongs inspiration
-The pneumotaxic area limits inspiration.
Describe how arterial P02 influences alveolar ventilation
-BIG drops in PO2 increase ventilation
-need to be in hypoxic in order for this to kick in (not sensitive)
Describe how arterial PC02 influences alveolar ventilation
-PCO2 is the main control of alveolar ventilation because tiny increases in PCO2 increase ventilation
-(highly sensitive) most important control of respiration (new born helps take first breath)
Describe how arterial pH influences alveolar ventilation
-a lower pH increases ventilation