Flashcards in Female Reproductive System (Ch. 28) Deck (32):
What functions must the female reproductive system carry out?
Support developing embryo
Ovaries: Location and Ligaments
Lateral to uterus
Held in place by mesenteries and ligaments: mesovarium, suspensory ligament, and ovarian ligament.
All within broad ligament (peritoneum that hangs over uterus)
Suspensory ligament attaches ovary to pelvic wall; ovarian ligament attaches ovary to uterus
What does the ovary subdivide into?
Ovary subdivides into cortex and medulla
Ovary: Cortex and Medulla
Cortex holds gametes (oocytes). Each oocyte is held w/in a follicle.
Medulla is loose CT filled w/ blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels.
1. Primary oocytes begin to mature w/in growing fascicles.
2. A primary oocyte completes Meiosis I to become a secondary oocyte.
3. The secondary oocyte begins Meiosis II and is released during ovulation when the follicle ruptures.
4. A corpus luteum develops from the remnants of the follicle.
5. The corpus luteum degenerates if secondary oocyte is not fertilized
aka Fallopian tubes
Begin at the infundibulum (receives the egg) and end at the uterus.
Ciliated fimbriae surround infundibulum and help egg to pass into oviduct.
Just medial to infundibulum is expansion called ampulla.
Medial portion of oviduct (next to uterus) is the isthmus.
Ovulation and Uterine Tubes
Ovulated egg is released into peritoneal cavity, close to but NOT directly into infundibulum.
Infundibulum bends over ovary and fimbriae sweep ovarian surface. This produces currents in peritoneal fluid that help bring egg into uterine tube.
Cilia and smooth muscle assist movement towards uterus.
Ectopic Pregnancy (or Tubal)
Fertilized egg implants in uterine tube.
Located in pelvic cavity, anterior to rectum. Held in place by broad ligament and round ligament.
Hollow, thick walled, pear-shaped
The main portion of the uterus is known as the ____ while the rounded top is the ____. The narrow region inferior to the body of the uterus is the ____.
Body; Fundus; Isthmus
What is the neck of the uterus? What is it's function?
Cervix; holds uterus closed during pregnancy
What is inferiorly located to the cervix?
What are the 3 layers of the uterus (from superficial to deep)?
Outer serous membrane of the uterus
Smooth muscle layer of the uterus - pushes fetus out during childbirth
Lining of uterus
--composed of simple columnar epithelium + cilia and secretory cells. Nourishes fetus during development or is shed during menstruation.
External Genitalia: Clitoris
Clitoris of female is homologous to penis in male, contains erectile tissue including the corpora cavernosa.
External Genitalia: Labia Majora
Homologous to scrotum
External Genitalia: Labia Minora
Encloses vestibule which houses urethra and vaginal openings
External Genitalia: Vestibular Glands
Secrete mucus when sexually aroused (facilitates entry of penis)
Mammary Glands: Areola
Pigmented skin around nipple
Technically part of integument: modified sweat glands
Present in males and females (functional only in females)
Mammary glands are divided into?
Lobes and smaller lobules
Lobules have alveoli that produce ____.
Lobules and alveoli do not develop until ____.
Mammary Glands: Milk Secretion
Milk is secreted into larger and larger ducts - eventually reaches the lactiferous ducts at nipples.
Enlarged region where milk accumulates during nursing is lactiferous sinus.
Duct development and breast enlargement happen at puberty.
The labia majora is homologous to the ____.
The labia minora is homologous to the ____ ____.
The glans clitoris is homologous to the ____ ____.
The bulb of vestibule is homologous to the ____ ____.
The corpora cavernosa is homologous to the ____ ____.