Female Reproductive System (Ch. 28) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Female Reproductive System (Ch. 28) Deck (32):
1

What functions must the female reproductive system carry out?

Produce gametes
Support developing embryo

2

Ovaries: Location and Ligaments

Lateral to uterus

Held in place by mesenteries and ligaments: mesovarium, suspensory ligament, and ovarian ligament.

All within broad ligament (peritoneum that hangs over uterus)

Suspensory ligament attaches ovary to pelvic wall; ovarian ligament attaches ovary to uterus

3

What does the ovary subdivide into?

Ovary subdivides into cortex and medulla

4

Ovary: Cortex and Medulla

Cortex holds gametes (oocytes). Each oocyte is held w/in a follicle.

Medulla is loose CT filled w/ blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatic vessels.

5

Oogenesis

1. Primary oocytes begin to mature w/in growing fascicles.
2. A primary oocyte completes Meiosis I to become a secondary oocyte.
3. The secondary oocyte begins Meiosis II and is released during ovulation when the follicle ruptures.
4. A corpus luteum develops from the remnants of the follicle.
5. The corpus luteum degenerates if secondary oocyte is not fertilized

6

Uterine Tubes

aka Fallopian tubes

Begin at the infundibulum (receives the egg) and end at the uterus.

Ciliated fimbriae surround infundibulum and help egg to pass into oviduct.

Just medial to infundibulum is expansion called ampulla.

Medial portion of oviduct (next to uterus) is the isthmus.

7

Ovulation and Uterine Tubes

Ovulated egg is released into peritoneal cavity, close to but NOT directly into infundibulum.

Infundibulum bends over ovary and fimbriae sweep ovarian surface. This produces currents in peritoneal fluid that help bring egg into uterine tube.

Cilia and smooth muscle assist movement towards uterus.

8

Ectopic Pregnancy (or Tubal)

Fertilized egg implants in uterine tube.

9

Uterus

Located in pelvic cavity, anterior to rectum. Held in place by broad ligament and round ligament.

Hollow, thick walled, pear-shaped

10

The main portion of the uterus is known as the ____ while the rounded top is the ____. The narrow region inferior to the body of the uterus is the ____.

Body; Fundus; Isthmus

11

What is the neck of the uterus? What is it's function?

Cervix; holds uterus closed during pregnancy

12

What is inferiorly located to the cervix?

Vagina

13

What are the 3 layers of the uterus (from superficial to deep)?

Perimetrium
Myometrium
Endometrium

14

Perimetrium

Outer serous membrane of the uterus

15

Myometrium

Smooth muscle layer of the uterus - pushes fetus out during childbirth

16

Endometrium

Lining of uterus
--composed of simple columnar epithelium + cilia and secretory cells. Nourishes fetus during development or is shed during menstruation.

17

External Genitalia: Clitoris

Clitoris of female is homologous to penis in male, contains erectile tissue including the corpora cavernosa.

18

External Genitalia: Labia Majora

Homologous to scrotum

19

External Genitalia: Labia Minora

Encloses vestibule which houses urethra and vaginal openings

20

External Genitalia: Vestibular Glands

Secrete mucus when sexually aroused (facilitates entry of penis)

21

Mammary Glands: Areola

Pigmented skin around nipple

22

Mammary Glands

Technically part of integument: modified sweat glands

Present in males and females (functional only in females)

23

Mammary glands are divided into?

Lobes and smaller lobules

24

Lobules have alveoli that produce ____.

Milk

25

Lobules and alveoli do not develop until ____.

Pregnancy

26

Mammary Glands: Milk Secretion

Milk is secreted into larger and larger ducts - eventually reaches the lactiferous ducts at nipples.

Enlarged region where milk accumulates during nursing is lactiferous sinus.

Duct development and breast enlargement happen at puberty.

27

The labia majora is homologous to the ____.

Scrotum

28

The labia minora is homologous to the ____ ____.

Scrotal midline

29

The glans clitoris is homologous to the ____ ____.

Glans penis

30

The bulb of vestibule is homologous to the ____ ____.

Corpus spongiosum

31

The corpora cavernosa is homologous to the ____ ____.

Corpora Cavernosa

32

The ovaries are homologous to the ____.

Testes