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Flashcards in Ferrets Deck (36):

general points about ferrets?
inguinal rings?
sebaceous glands?
in the summer? how much wieght do they lose?

carnivores. caudal heart is at 6th -8th rib -further back
closed inguinal rings
sebaceous glands - odour and brown yellwo secretions - discolours fur.
sleep 18 hours a day and very short energetic bouts.
seasonal WL. 40% in summer. and hair thins out


clinical exam of a ferret?
what common dental problem do they get?
why should you certainly assess the mm?
what are ear mites?
in a female - vulval swelling? what does neutering predispose to?

dont like temp being taken,
dental - commonly - tartar and gingivitis.
mm assess in females for anaemia - to do with oestrus toxicity.
ear mites - otodectes cynotis) brown and waxy
splenic enlagre is common? - can be normal.
female - neuter - may get AGD.


temp? hr? rr?

temp - 37.8-40
hr - 180-260
rr - 33-36


preventative meds? how often health check? vacc for?
when should you vacc for this?
adverse effects of vacc?
what other vaccs could you have?
tx fleas? which licesnsed?
passports? - rules? what info on official cert?

annual health check
vacc yearly for distemper ( 6-8w/o, repeat every 3-4 weeks until 14w/o, annually)
side effects - there fore keep at surgery for 30 mins after as may need adrenaline, antihistamines?
vomit, diarr, erythema, fever, anaphylactic shock,

rabies too in usa
fleas - fipronil. imadacloprid ivermectin etc. imadocloprid licesnced!!

passports - look at defra. no quarantine in uk but must - micrchip, vacc for rabies, official cert, treat for ticks and tapeworms. (prazi)
all info on passport. - date of birth, micro no, date inserted and location, date of vacc, vacc manu, product name and batch no, date for booster


where can you admin drugs?

iv - cephalic, jugular, later saph
im - quads epaxials
sc - scruff and flank

1% bw = safe. to take bloods. need AN. can take from heart too as further back.


blood sample sites and amount? 1% safely. need AN.

cephalic - 1ml
lateral saph - over hock
jugular -
cranial vc or prox jugular - dorsal recumbency at thoracic inlet. sedate of GA.


urine collection? ph?

free catch, acidic but varies with diet. cystocentesis or catheter.


fluid therapy? how much? where?

resent s/c
ivor io (prox tibia)


nutrition? when? how?

anorexic, syringe feed, 2-5ml 3-4 times a day.


diag imaging? xrays? heart?

6th-8th rib.
does not conatct diaphragm, ligament between diaphragm and heart contaisn fat.
lots of fat in mediastinum.
male have a j shaped os penis.


skin diseases? most common? where?

otodectes cyanotis. ear mites, outer ear canal. ivemectin!
flease- from cats and dogs. do not spray fipronil - put on cloth and then ferret.
do not use collars as they are toxic.


bacterial disease? where from? types?
what causes lumpy jaw?

bites - staph, strep, corynebacterium, pasturella, e coli.

abscesses, deep pyo, cellulitis.
debride and ab's
lumpy jaw - arcanobacterium pyogenes. - PEN/TETRA.


viral diseases? from dogs? cx? when should you vacc?

distemper? chin rash - 100% mortality! vacc!!!! (6-8w/o, every 3-4 weeks until 14 weeks old then anually)


fungal diseases? ringworm caused by? trans from? tx? dx?

microsporum canis and trichophyton mentagraphytes.
trans from cats?
dx- skinscrape and cx.


neoplasia? most common? (2)

mct - usually benign. well circumcised, may be ulcerated.

sebaceous epithelioma/adenoma - pedunctualted/plaque like mass. may become ulcerated.


misc ?? - to do with sebaseous glands? cx?

sebaceous glands - naturally musky odour and greasy feel. normally coat thins in warm weather. and bilaterally sym alopecia of tail perineum and inguinal in breeding season.


adrenal gland disease? associated to?
what may predispose it?
what can you use to control this?

associated to adreno cortical neoplasia. adenoma. etc.
neuter - correlated. leads to concerns.
could use deslorelin implants every 18m/o.
cx - bliateral alopecia, pruritis, vulval swelling. castrated male.
dx - us - enlarged, assay - androges, osetrodiol, ANDROSLEINDIONE.
ddx - ovarian remenants.
tx - surgery and medical. if both remove one and abit of another. unilateral - remove one and recover. may use deslorehlin implants (gnrh)


hyperoestrogenism? common when and in who?
if unmated?
side effects of oestrogen?

tx? - many ways?

females in the breeding season - mar-sept.
if unmated - 50% get aplastic anaemia - look at mm. after a prolonged oestrus.
oestrogen - suppresses BM. - anaemia and pancytopaenia. may be due to adrenal neoplasia?

cx - swollen, vulva, vulval discharge, anorexic, pallor, systolic murmur, weak pulses, meleana, alopecia at tail base, petechiation, posterior paresis, systemic infections due to leuopaenia. paresis - due to haem myelomalacia.

dx - h and cx and haem.

tx - support when not in season, - iron and vit b and abs,
blood transfuse?
HCG - makes ovulate?
jill jab - proligestone - prior to start of breeding season? - side effect sof pyo ansd liver disease and skin reaction need to give every year.

deslorelin - last 2 years. overcomes risks of AGD if you have spayed. need to repeat

mate with a hob - may get bites. every time comes into oestrus.

artificially keep day length short - unreliable.

spay - permanent! good. but risk of AGD within 3. 5 years. lack of feedback from LH and FSH. implant deslorelin. prevents but need to do every 2 years.


insulinoma? usually seen in? cause by which cells?
leads to?
- prog? surgery? or meds?

middle aged ferrets? b-islet cells affected. high insulin produced leads to hypoglycaemia.

cx - collapse, recumbent, dep, salivate, glassy eyed, - acute
chronic - weak, leth, ataxic, wl, inapp.

dx - h and cx. low blood glucose levels. and normal of high insulin.

tx - surgery or meds. prog - 6-24 m/o
partial pancreatectomy.

meds - preds/diazoxide. orally 2xd.
monitro blood glucose. feed regulary with high protein and fat diet. feed snack after sleep due to low blood glucose.


Gi diseases? obstruction?
what is a trichobezoar?

fbs are common. trich - hairball.
vomit and regurg amorexia, leth, wl ,diarr, ptyalism, paw at mouth, hard to palpate stomach as in ribcage.

dx - xrays and contrasts
tx - surgery laxatives for hair balls.


endoparasites? like?

toxocaris cati/ dipylidium caninum? giardia
cocci - diarr and prolapse.
tx - toltrazuril or sulpha drugs.


gastroduodenal ulcers? causes?

all ages. helicobacter mustelae.
cx - anorexia. teeth grind. ptyalism, diarr, melaena, ulcers on hard palate

dx - hard cx, biop, culture, respond to tx, faecal tests.
tx - met and amoxycillin rantidine. fluids and iron and nutrition


PLE? caused by?
similar to?

lawsonia intracellularis.
simialr to wet tail.
actue colitis and tenesmus and anorexia. wl, rectal prolapse
dx - biopsy - mucosa thickened.
tx - ABs tetra and support.


ECE? means?
caused by?

coronavirus, epizootic catarrhal enteritis.
people act as fomites. recurs.

cx - leth, amorexia, green diarr and melaena,
tx - support abs isolte hygiene.


cardiacc disease? which common? cx? dx? tx?

congestive DCM. leth and dyspnoea, tachycardia, muffled heart sounds, pleural effusion and ascites.

dx - xray and us and increased ventricle dimensions.

tx - diuretics and anabolic steroids.


3 viruses seen in ferrets?
1) distemper? cx?
2) aleutian disease? parvo, cx, dx,
3) influenza? cx? tx?

1) distemper - vacc! cx - chin rash, dermatitis, anorexic, pyrexia, dep, photophobia, blepharospasm, discharge, cough and sneeze. 2 bacterial. hyperkeratosis. cns signs. fatal. trans by aerosols.

2) aleutian disease - ferrets. parvovirus. cx - ataxia, paresis, paralyss, tary faeces, wl.
dx - histo, liver kidney spleen, meninges (lymphs) PTS,

3) INFLUENZA - cx - similar to distemper. serous nasal discharge. cough and sneeze. self limits ans support.


2 main kinds of neoplasia seen? other 2 - insulinoma and AGD.
1) lymphoma? 2 forms? cx? dx? tx?
2) splenomegaly? due to? if under 3 years? assess what before surgery? why?

lymphoma - 3rd most common after insulinoma and AGD.
1) juvenille - lymphoblastic - more aggressive
2)adult - lymphocytic
cx - imapp, lns, pleurla effusion, dyspnoea, cough and organ enlarge.
dx - xray, us, fna, lns, biop lns, thoracocentesis, cyto, haem.
tx - thoracocentesis, nutrition, steroids, doxorubicin, radiation and vincristine, bad prog - 6m/o.

b) splenomegaly - extramedullry haematopoesis. neoplasia. unde r3 yrs old - more likely to be neo. surgery to remove but check BM function before as it may be a main site of erthropoesis?


what must you do to ferrets before AN that you dont do with any other rodents?

starve - 4-6 hours.


pre meds?

diazepam, atropine, acp, midazolam, hypnorm.


injectable AN?

medetomidine and ket.
alfaxalone, ket/acp, ket/diazepam, med/ket/bupre, hypnorm and midazolam.


inhaled AN? when normally used?

iso/sevo. esp if fractious. prior sedation is good. easily intubated.



bupre (8-12 hours) plus reverse hypnorm while still have analgesia.

antipamezoles - reverses alpha 2.

nsaids or LAs. also good.


surgery - OVH? best to do when? how can you prevent AGD?

may predispose to AGD. best to do before 1st osetrus. midline approach. dont need to break ligs as they are very lax. use deslorelin implants to prevent AGD.


castrate? predisposes? when to do? why do it?
keep apart for how long? how can you reduce AGD? reduces odour.

not routine. predisposes AGD. 6-8m/o good.
reduces aggression and sebaceous gland secretions.
leave open. inguinal canal is closed.
keep apart for 6 weeks. use deslorelin implants to stop AGD. need every 2 years.


vasectomy? good to use for? how done? retains ferrets urge to mate. infertile.

use to bring females out of oestrus. reflex ovulation prevents - persistent oestrus. and hyperosetrogenism.
dorsal recumbency. - deep layer of sc fat. avoid urethra. one end uture to tunica to prevent anastmosis, nsaids. 2 pre scrotal incisions. palpate cord 1st.


'descenting' /anal sacculectomy? why would you do it? allowed in uk?
though of as what from rcvs?

not allowed in uk!!! does not remove odour!!!
cosmetic! - thought of as a mutilation by rcvs. be aware of but not allowed to do ever!! DOES NOT DESCENT!!!