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Flashcards in Small Mammals Deck (57):

what is a myomorph? what is a hystricomorph?
dental formula of both?
what is the dental formula of a rabbit?

myo - rat mouse gerbal, hamster. 1/1,0/0,0/0,3/3
hystrico - gp, chinchilla, degu - 1/1,0/0,1/1,3/3
rabbit - lagomorph. 2/1,0/0,3/2,3/3


why do myo's not have many dental rpoblems? which jaw is wider?
what is the anatomy of a female genitalia? do they have a post partem oestrus?

only the incisors continualy grow! so mot many dental issues. the mandible is wider than the maxilla. opp.
they 'gnaw' still see spikes.
female - separate urathral and vaginal opening. (rabbit - vulva) ddx. pyo. vaginal plug post coitus and they do have a post partem oestrus.


in a hystricomorph which teeth grow? what colour is the enamel in a gp? what colour in all the others?
what is the stomach like in a hamster? do they all perfrom coprophagy?

all teeth grow in hystrico - prone to dental issues. diastema and spkies.
gp is whit enamel and yellow in all the others.
hamster - stomach looks bilobed - distinct.
caecum on the left - in a rabbit its on the right.


what is chromodactorrhoea? which species? cx of what?

seen mainly in rats. others too. red tears from the hardarian glands. normal. if exxcess cx of resp diease. much more if sick and not grooming.


what do gps often get above their tail and where is it from? what problem may arise?

often get greasy back end due to scent glands. may also get impacted.


do rats have a gall bladder?



hamsters have what that is unique in their mouth? what else do they have on their backs? - look like bald patches?

cheek pouches. sebaceous glands on their back - owner may think they are bald patches.


how do you sex a myomorph?

myo - male - anogenital distance is greater and a female has nipples.
hystrico - ano genital. female slit like vulva and urethral process.
gp - male - round and extrude penis. female - y shaped.


do rats have an os penis? whch other species?

yes and so do ferrets.


which species should you never hold by the tail?
which hamsters do not hibernate?
what do gerbils often get around their lips?
if you see a square shaped tail - what does it mean?

gerbils! you should cup or scruff them!
russian hamsters.
cheilitis -inflamm.
square tail - indicates they are thin - see vertebral processes.


what cx can you look for on a clinical exam?

hunched, pyloerection, aggressive, teeth grind, square tail, discharges - esp. chromodactorrhoea. lame, salivate, inapp, isolated, coat, rattle, masses, hair loss etc.


what is the range of temps?

temp - 35-39
pulse -100-700
rr - 35-200
hedgehog - low temp all others are above 37


taking bloods? need? where from? (4 sites)
average blood volume? ow much can you take? same as a rabbit?

GA needed. sapenous, later tail vein, femoral, jugular, cardiac puncture, cranial vc.
70ml/kg of blood. can take 10% safely. or 0.5/100g if sick. or smaller animal.


urine samples? ph?
in a rat and mouse what is normal?

alkaline unless canrivore. gp very high ph - 9.
rat and mouse - protein is normal.
gerbil - acetone, bilirubin, glucose and proetin is normal.
USG - often >1.045.
free flow or cycstocentesis. /GA.
xray - iso. GA.


xrays? what can you see?

abdo large compared o thorax. hamster = bilobed stomach,
uroliths are common
gp - cystic ovarian disease.
skull - chinchilla have large tymoanic bullae.
testes can be retracted.
os penis in rats and mice and ferrets.
endocarditis in hamsters is common - enlarged heart.


when doing an U/S what should you try and mnimise and why?

clipping - large bw;sa ratio. therefore they lose heat easily.


way to give therapy?

iv - hard. im - no!
oral is good.
not in water as unoredictable.
ip or i/o. is okay too. - fluids good this way.


giving fluids? maintenance? how given? max at any one time?
which species absolutely needs vit c if it is ill?

100ml/ sc or orally or ip or io.
25-35 ml at any one time. 2-3xd.
gps absolutely need vit c!!


critical care of a rodent? main points? fluids? 02? which ones shoiuld be kept alone and which with a companionm?

02 therapy if blue mm or if resp difficulties.
admin warm fluids (lactate ringers) and keep them warm. i/p route is good. warm the environment up too. dont over heat as they cant pant or sweat. keep away from dogs and cats. off inticing foods and syringe feed and familiar h2o. try not to isolate from companions! (rats alone) and syrian hamsters alone. offer additional nesting material and hide boxes. keep quiet. etc etc


GIT disorders of rodents? (5) explain the place rule?
stasis? tx?
obs? cx? tx?
bloat? tx?
constipated? due to? cx? common in? tx?
diarrhoea and enteritis. ? cause? in hamsters? also called? tx?

stasis - esp if stressed and esp in hingut fermenters. hystricomorphs get dehydration of contents too. need fluids nutrition and prokinetics.
- obstruction - anorexic and acute abdo or asymptomatic. reduced faeces, lethargic, quiet, hunched - emergency!! fluids . surgery and zantac anf fibre.
- bloat - diet change. huge stomach emergency. - gps. stomach tube or trochar.
- constipation - lack of fibre. rectal impaction. often still eating! often male gps. flaccid anus? dont eat caecotrophs. manually evacuate!
- diarrhoea and enteritis - gp and hamster disrupted gut flora. enterotoxaemia. not rats and mice often. rodents cant vomit. hamster - lawsonia - wet tail, PLE. foul smell and rectal prolapse, intuss, PM die fast. tx - support oral tetra/neomycin. care . poor prog.
PLACE RULE - pen, linco, amino, ceph, erythro's - do not give orally.


DDX diarrhoea and enteritis?
-gp and cc?
- hamster?
-all? (9)

gp and cc - diet! sudden change. laxative plants or mouldy - remove source and supportive tx.

hamster - lawsonia intracellularis. - wet tail. die quickly. PLE. 3-8w/o rectal prolapse, intuss, foul smelling.

ALL - e.coli, salmonella, (ZOO)

yersinia pseudoTB. - trans by outdoor, wild birds, rodents etc sep, wl, death, enlarged LN's/

clostridia.spiriforme/difficile - AB doses too high - enterotoxaemia - fatal. MET. and support

TYZZERS DISEASE - c. piliforme. mice and gerbils esp. white spots in liver. and in rabbits. acute death esp young. necrotising hepatitis, lns, cns signs. silver stain. MET.

cocci - esp gp and cc. eimeria. 2 to poor husbandry. oocysts. tx - sulphur drugs and clean out

trichomoniasis - MET
pinworms - fenbend. )oxyuris) d and irritated.
AB associated - smear! enterotoxaemia. gp and hamsters. tx - fluro, TMPS, Met, transfaunation and support and probiotics.


resp diseases? rodents? cx?
most common in GPS'? most common in rabbits?

ddx? gp's? mice? rats?

cx - discharge, chromodaccorhoea, sneeze, rattle, cough dyspnoea. red ocular disachrge. (porphyrin from harderian gland.0 anorexia and dep.

tx - AB. C+S. TW/SWABS. support - nebulise 02 nsaids vitc lower ammonia,

rats and mice - mycoplasma pulmonis - only manage chronic. ab's.

GP - bordetella, do not mix with rabbits. they can pass it to gp's. and dogs. stress related - otoitis media and abscesses and metritis. xrays and vit c!

GP - strep pneumoniae. otitis media etc.
Gp - kelbsiella, moraxella, pseudomonas,

Rats - mycoplasa pulmonis - rattles. chronic! cant eliminate. only supportive tx and manage. red tears. head tilit. support. may try enroflox or doxy.

mice - CAR (cilia associated resp bacillus) sendai virus. or cn get mycoplasma.


urolithiasis and cyctitis? if keep getting recurrent cyctitis? suspect?

esp in? cx?'
tx? what used to alkalinise urine? chronic tx?

esp GP's. diet high and ca and oxalate. recurrent - DM?
cx - stranguria, haematuria, dysuria, dep, collapse, wl
dx - xray for large ones. rabbits get sludge.
tx - cystotomy and remove and AB'S. often recur.
chronic - nsaids, and change diet and ddx. DM/ ? potassium citrate will alkalinise the urine.


in rats which resp disease most common? why called rattles ? tx? cx?

mycoplasma pulmonis. rattles as you cannot eliminate it - only supportive tx. cx - red tears and head tilit and resp signs. may try to tx with enro, doxy.


renal disease? rodents. meds?
rats? - tx?

common in older. are the AB you are using renally excreteed? diet?
hamster - amyloidosis
rats - progressive nephropathy. glomerosclerosis. tx - restrict calories an lower protein and steroids.

cx - polydipsia, proteinuria
ca carbonate discharge - chalky urine.


flystrike? also called? common in? GP's? tx?

maggot. myiasis. older rabbit and gps. eating caecotrophs? are theur teeth/ms okay?
GP's - often toxic shock - and rabbits - supportive therapy!!
may be due to urinary problem - scald.
tx - cleanse and remove maggots, ivermectin? rearguard - cyromazine. (l1 and l2) keep clean and fly control.


seizures and epilepsy? GP's?? causes?

gps - trixacaris - mange
skin disease - pruritis

diazepam to fits! - usually stress! ivermectin (3 doses 10-14 days apart)


torticollis? seen in? cx? tx?

gp otitis. strep?
head tilit, circle, roll, nystagmus, pus at base of ear.
nsaids, and fluoro!! - rodents also get e.cuniculi - rabbits neuro disease.


preg toxaemia/ketoacidosis? 2 forms?
often seen in?

gps - obese? also get in non preg.
1)toxic form - preg ischaemia fatal death and DIC.
2) metabolic - stressors.

cx - anorexia, dep, abort, salivate, coma, death. smell ketones?

tx - glucoe and dextrose. fluids, propylene glycol, steroids and ca carbonate. reduce obesity and stress c-sec. do not give steroids if metabolic.


hypovitaminosis c? esp which species?
how much do they need? where do they get it from?


GP's!! need 10mg/kg - lack of an enzyme that synth vit c from glucose!!
need 3-mg/kg if ill /preg.

cx - in 14d. need for collagen synth.rough hair, scaling ears, leth,, weak, anorexia, gait abnorm, wasting, gingival haem, loose teeth, foul smelling faeces, blood, scurvy, hypersalivate. death in 2 weeks. pm - haem

tx- 50-100 mg/kg/d. vit c.
store feed away from uv and cover water if added supps. do not expose to uv and it depletes it.


rodents common diseases:
which do you see more problems in?
how can youexamine it?
what is the main problem - tongue trap!!

in hystrico - their teeth grow all the time. dont get abscesses like rabbit. due to low fibre and hig carb diet.
genetic in CC .
dx - otoscope, GA xrays and endoscope.
may impinge on lacrimal uducts and orbits and spikes and pockets, ALSO GET TONGUE TRAP. incisor maloclusion is secondary.
tx - burr. and abs etc if needed.
cx - wl, anorexia, salivate, flystrike, teeth grind, scruffy.


dermatoses? causes?
rats and mice?

endocrine, neoplastic, parasitic.
rats and mice - fur mites priritis. dordum- ivermectin!
hamster - demodex - not pruritic but hair loss. ivermectin.
hamster and rats - notoduris muris - warts on ears and nose. and tail and body. ivermectin!

varkering - overcrowded. mutilate each other.

ringworn - itrazconizole. trycophita.
facial dermatitis - in gerbils. secrete from harderian glands.
cc - chew fur if females are stressed.


what is cheilitis? seen in? why? tx?

lip inflamm. seen in gps. fruti acids and poor vit c. lip scabs.
symptomatic tx and diet.


endocrine diseases? (5)

cyctic ovarian disease. gps and gerbils
DM - gp hamster and cc
pituitary hyperplasia and adenomas - rats
hyperadrenocortisism - hamsters and gerbils.
hypothyroid in hamsters.


cycstic ovarian disease in gps.? cx?

2 kinds? ddx? rule out?

very common. asymptomatic as they grow get non pruritic alopecia over back and flanks and abdo enlarge and infertile. cx.

dx - h and abdo palpate xray and us. usually bilateral,

tx - OVH. /hcg. percutaneous drain. - peritonitis risk.
1)serous cysts - ion pump def. ovh!
2) follicular - path. hcg! deslorhelin or ovh.

ddx- lat e preg, dm, cushings, parasites, batering, vit def,


cystic ovarian disease in gerbils? seen in? cx? dx? tx?

older females. often bilateral. less fertile and alopecia and poor coat. abdo distended and dyspnoea.
dx - cx, palpate, xray and us.

tx - fna and ovh.


diabetes mellitus? seen in?
ddx from?
tx? what does it predispose to?

gp, cc , hamster,
ddx chronic cystitis.
cx - 3-6mo, app, dep, anorexia, wl, pupd, cataracts, infertile, foetal mrotality.
dx - high blood glucose, hyperlipidaemia, glucose tolerance tests. measure serum fructosamine.
tx - fibre. supprt, fluids, remove cataracts. esp chinese hamsters.

predisposes cystitis.


pituitary hyperplasia and adenomas? common in?

older rats esp non breeding females.
cx - loss of app, wl, mm atrpohy, chromodacorhoea, nerve dys, head tilit, ataxia, circling, fitting, bilateral alopecia, may lead to acth release.

spay or ovh!


hyperadrenocortisism? seen in? cx?

gp's, hamsters and gerbils. ddx alopecia, pupd, mm waste, acth stim.

ddx cyctic ovarian disease. iatrogenic?
more in males and older.
alopecia and pupd and hyperpigmentation, polyphagia, bahavioral.

dx - skin scrape, hair plucks, culture, cortisol? serum AP?


tx - metyropone. by mouth,


hypothyroid in hamsters? cx? tx?

alopecia, hyperpigmented, leth, cold, thickening,
tx - thyroxine.


neuro disease in rodents? ddx?

lead. spontaneous seizures. handle early on! stim by chnages in environment.
e. cuniculi. also. and skin diseases


head tilt? ddx?

otitis, pitutary, neoplaia, aging, resp infections, papilloma polyp.
ab and remove polyps etc.


cavian leukaemia? seen in? cx?

gps. retrovirus.
cx- rough hair, ln, wl
dx- he=aem, biop, ln aspirate, cyto, abdo us,
tx - chemo, pts.


conjunctivitis? usually in? tx?

cc's. dust baths. remove it and topical lubes and abs .


renal failure? cx? dx? tx?

chronic nephritis esp rats.
wl , app. pupd., cystitis. urinalysis and biochem.
fluids and anabolic steroids and reduce stress and fresh water.


DCM? seen in?

cc's. hcm and TR.
hamster - CM, and thrombosis.


hamster neoplasia? 3 kinds? dx?

- melanoma - cutaneous more in males and may be amelanotic

- eptheliotrphic lymphoma? (mycosis fungoides) 2nd most common skin alopecia, pruritis, plaques, flaky, ulcers,
biop and pts.

- hamster papovirus - causes transmissable lymphoma and cutaneous epitheliomas. 3m.o to 1 year old.
warts around eyes and mouth and perineal. very contagious passed in urine. very resistant.


pre AN prep?

do not fast. only ferrets.
clin exam and correct any fluid imbalance.
weigh and pre op food and water intake assessed. remove food 1 hour before in gp and cc. - make sure pharynx clear.


pre an meds?

gp and cc - easily stressed - sedate. hypnorm and diazepam do not use injectable to induce.


inhalation AN? use?

iso/sevo. pre oxygenate. non slip floor . eye lube as iso irrates mm.
face mask and ayres t piece. hard to intubate.


intra op care - problems? tail?
post op?

hypothermia!!! - wrap tails of mice and rats heat pads and lamps and insulate. monitor closely as cant sweat or pant. pulse ox and ecg. fluids, analgesia - bupre.

nsaids. - car eof renal.

post op - prokinetics and feed and nsaids.


fracture repair?

in 7-10 d healed. (callous)
external splints./fixators. amputate and they cope well.


neuter? why? age?

prevent breeding, cyctic ovarian disease and neo, pyo. etc.

age - rat - 6-8 wks
mice - 6-7wks
hamster - 6-8wks (syrian /russian) 7-14 in chinese.
gerbils - 10-12 weeks
gp male - 9-10 female - 4-6
cc - 6-8m/o


castration? why diff? 2 approaches?

open canal and may ratract them - push on abdo.

1)scrotal approach - cloed tech. if open remove fat pad.
2) pre scrtoal tech - prefferred/ sterile. open. close tunica and skin up. keep separate for 6 weeks


OVH? how? why cc and degu diff?

midline. ligate vessels. clip/ligiature.
cc and degu - no uterine body like a rabbit therefore - lig caudal to paired cervices on vagina.

others- lig on uterus.


ovarianectomy? when gp?
when rats? - other tx?

hamster pyo?!! - what is normal?

gp - 4-6 w/o lessens chance of cyctic ovaries. and uterine disease. lateral approach. ligate vessels.

rats - 6-8 weeks. reduce neoplasia of mammary glands. or can implant with deslorhelin. (gnrh)

pyo -hamsters and rats.
hamster has white discharge 5-7 days post ovulate - normal.


mammary gland removal? which species most common?
mice and gerbils - usually malignant? how to prevent?

rats - usually benign. ulcerate and problems moving! bettter to remove.

mice and gerbil - ofetn malignant - poor prog. remove plus wide margin. prevent by ovarianectomy early or using deslorhelin implants. (4-6w/o)