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Flashcards in Rabbits Deck (56):

which breeds are prone to incisor maloclusion due to skull morphology? also prone to?

dwarfs rabbits - mandibular prognathism, maxillary brachygnaithism. plus predisposed to nasolacrimal duct and dental disease.


if a rabbit kicks, what can it lead to ?

lumbar vertebral fractures (l6/7) which leads to permanent spinal damage. plus may get osteoporosis from lack of exercise eg. kept in a small hutch.


what is the vertebral formula of a rabbit?

c7, t12, l7, s4, c15-16 (my have t13 in some)


what is the dental formulae of a rabbit? what are the peg teeth? which are wider apart? how many salivary glands?

2/1 0/0 3/2 3/3 - vestigal second pair of incisors are behind the 1st pair and are known as 'peg teeth' . teeth are open rooted, long crowned. - grow continuously. cheek teeth are wider apart on maxilla the mandible. mandibular ct grow faster too. 4 pairs of salivary glands.


what is a rabbits coat like? Which breed differs and is therefore prone to sore hocks (plantar pododermatitis) how often do they moult? when do they get their adult coat? when sles may you see loosening of the hairs? why? what is the dewlap? where are scent glands? why are feet prone to pododermatitis?

short soft undercoat protected by longer guard hairs. Rex breeds - guard hairs are shorter - prone to sore hocks. guard hairs are 1st to emerge....adult coat at 6-8 m/o. moult 2 x a year. pregnant/pseudo - loosening of belly thigh and chest so that it can be plucked to expose nipples. female - 4-5 pairs of nipples. absent on the males. nb) skin tears easily. female have large flap of skin under chin - dewlap. feet are covered in hair. - prone to pododerm. inguinal glands often have yellow/oily deposit. (scent glands. )


why are rabbits prone to corneal ulceration and drying of the corneal surface? what must be avoided during enucleation. what is located behind the 3rd eyelid? why is the nasolacrimal duct prone to blockage? what are the ears used for?

rabbits are prone to corneal ulceration - due to only blinking 10-12 times a day. large network of vessels behind the eye and the includes the postorbital venous sinus. - avoid at enucleation.
nasolacrimal duct = 1 punctum. also has 2 sharp bends - narrowed - prone to block.
ears = highly vascular and involved in heat regulation and have a-v shunts.


GIT - what kind of gut does a rabbit have? stomach? why cant they vomit? ph? SI? - site of? terminal ileum? sacculus rotundus? colon separated into? fusus coli? what produces vfa's? explain caecotrophy? which vits? what else is good and what stimulates them to lick and ingest these?

hindgut fermenters - digest low quality, high fibre diet - mainly grass.
stomach - j shaped. left of midline. cardiac sphincter prevents vomiting, ph - 1-2.
si- nutrients absorbtion. ileum enlarges - sacculus rotundus. - unique and composed of lymphoid tissue.
LI- caecum well developed. fermentation. divided into2 parts - prox colon - distinct haustrae and taenia - and distal = no haustrae.
prox colon = separates into digestible and non. digestible (long) passed back to teh caecum. and non-digestible - passed to distal colon and expelled as hard pellets. junction of prox and distal colon- fusus coli. - intestinall pacemaker!

microbes in the LI - produce VFA'S, - energy. absrbed or caecotrophs.

caecotrophs - produce 2 types of faeces - hard and caecotrophs. good to resorb vit b and k . plus high in AA's and VFA's. these are not excreted at the same time. good for caecal transfaunation. the caecotrophs have a mucus envolope which stimulates licking and ingestion. these stay in the stomach for 6-8 hours.


what does the gall bladder secrete instead of bilirubin? (conjugated?) and what is the colour diff? rabbits are prone to hepatic lipidosis why?

it secretes biliverdin. more green. obese - high lipid stores - hepatic lipidosis. or if anorexic. /fasting then they are prone! start to mobilise fat stores for energy.


explain the immune system of a rabbit? spleen? 50% of lymphoid tissue is what? where found? what is the sacculus rotundus and what is the fusus coli?

spleen = small flat and elongated. 50% - GALT. found in the tonsils, sacculus rotundus (ileum) and in the SI peyers patches. NB) fusus coli = the junction from prox to distal colon. - intestinal pacemaker.


respiratory. how do they breath? large amount of intrathoracic fat is normal or abnormal?

they are obligate nasal breathers. and the large amount of fat is normal.


urinary: ph of urine?
how is calcium metabolism different in a rabbit? is crystaluria normal? what is the average fluid intake of a rabbit/day?

alkaline urine. (like all herbivores)
ca is absorbed from the GIT independant of the vit d. urine is the major source of excreteion of ca. therefore crystalluria is normal and common. fluid intake is 50-100ml/kg/day.


repro = amatomy of the doe?
when do they reach puberty - male/female?
why do you alwasy take the doe to the buck?
breeding season? what are the signs?
what causes an pseudopreg?
gestation? when can you palpate preg?
wean at? start copro at? when start on hay?

the doe has no uterine body. she has 2 separate uterine horns and 2 vcervices. - open into vagina.
no os pens in the buck and the inguinal canal is always open.
puberty - male - 5-8m/o
female - 4-5m/o
take doe to buck as she is very territorial.
reflex ovulation. receptive 12-14d then 2-4 not. jan-oct
rub chin, actuve, lordosis, vulva
infetile mating induces ovulation and causes pseudopreg.
palpate at 14d and gestation is 30-32d . wean at 6 weeks and copro at 3 weeks old. hay at 2-3 weeks.



HR - 180-300
RR- 30-60
TEMP - 38.5-40
WATER - 50-100
URINE - 10-35


what factors predispose disease? how should you start an examination and why?

inapp housing, diet, stress, hygiene. you should exam from a distance before you stress them out. they are masters and hiding signs of disease. inspect urine and faeces.


clinical exam of a rabbit? bcs, bw, dehydrated, coat, rr, cv etc.

BCS - 1-5. and BW. dehydrated? - sunken eyes, loss of skin elasticity. look at coat - fur should be soft and free of mats and clean. see skin. ? urne scald - myiasis (fly strike) - emergency. - treat with - rear guard.
see resps and nares and chest. should have short rapid insp.
CV - mm colour, slightly paler than normal is okay. CRT. auscaltate heart rate and rhythm. and pulses rate and quality. (femoral / auricular).


GIT exam - clin exam - what should you alwasy rule out?! how do you check this? what are rabbits esp prone to in the GIT?

ALWASY RULE OUT DENTAL DISEASE!! - need a nurse as can be hard. see incisors and peg teeth. see mucosa. use otoscope and gag/GA. or sedate. serious problems with GIT can follow due to anorexia and ileus. etc.

prone to hepatic lipidosis - if hypoglycaemic. - lipolysis - FA's and ketones - fatty liver.
you should palpate the face, manipulate the mandible from side to side. palpate the abdo - care. feel stomach kidneys, bladder, si and li. not liver or spleen.
exam anus - diarrhoea, myiasis etc.


Urogenital exam - what should you palpate? male? female?

can palpate kidneys and bladder with care. male - scrotum and faeces and testes.
female - vulva - cant feel inside tract.


MS system - where should you place the rabbit? palpate all and watch them moving

no slip surface


ears - what sis different in the rabbit? small amount of wax normal? what does oedema of the ear suggest?

the rabbit has 2 ear canals!! - one is false but you should look in both. otoscope. parasites/exudate/fb's/masses.
small wax is normal.
visible tympanic membrane.
oedema suggests - myxomatosis. can vacc for this and RHD.


eyes clin exam - what should you look for? what are rabbit prone to with nasolacrimal duct? why are they also prone to conrneal ulceration and drying.?

discharge, wet, alopecia, crust, eye position, nystagmus, sunken etc.

nasolacrimal duct - has 2 bends where it narows therefore prone to blockage.
corneal ulcers due to only blinking 10-12 times a day. also may have abberant eyelashes,


which LN's can you feel and should you examine?

popliteal.(pea sized)
prescap (lentil sized) others ou cannot palpate unless enlarged - auxillar, inguinal, SM,


RB03 - if a rabbit presents with anorexia, WL, lethargic, - why is it important? what should you rule out first? what should you monitor?

it is an emergency - quickly leads to GIT stasis and this can lead to hepatic lipidosis and can be fatal. you must rule out dental disease as your main ddx. you should monitor app, urine, faecal production. you should treat with fluids and prokinetics and nutrition. plus treat the primary cause.


rabbit dental disease - what is the dental formulae of a rabbit? congenital disease? acquired? which breeds are prone to congenital and why? what leads to acquired disease? what are spikes and why do they form? ca/p imbalnce leads to ? trauma?

2/1, 0/0, 3/2, 3/3. malloclusion is very common. abscesses are also common.
congenital - 8-10 w/o mandibular prognaitism eg dwarfs breeds. may penetrate the cheek/palate. cannot correct this.
acquired - adults. inadequate wear. high concs and low fibre diet. need 70% grass. they continuously grom (open rooted) therefore they need to be worn down. also the maxxila teeth grom faster. also get 'spike' formation - if the lateral movement is restricted. also if they have a ca/p imbalance - leads to alveolar bone resorption and loosening. - this can be due to selective feeding.
may also get trauma - fractures and subluxations. tooth may have pup exposed and abscesses.


what are the clinical signs of dental disease in a rabbit? and how can you diagnose this? treatment?

cx - anorexia, dysphagia, bruxism, ptyalism, dermatitis, halitosis, epiphora, wl, less faeces, dont groom, facial swell, less lateral movement therefore spikes, obstructed lacrimal duct - dacryo, maxilla abscesses and less eye retraction.
dx - hostry and clin signs. oral exam. xray,
tx - depends on the cause. burring, extract, support, change diet, remove spkies, repeat tx's. may remove and implant pmma beads.


a rabbit presents with GIT stasis and GI ileus. what is the causes? primary or secondary? cx? dx? tx?
what is dysbiosis? - cause? tx?
what is tyzzers disease? cause? tx?
cocci? signs? tx?

acquired disorder of reduced motility. may be due to obstruction? or defective propulsion? primary - anorexia, high carbs, adhesions, lack of exercise, toxins eg. lead.
seondary - pain stress housing change, routine and diet etc. causes dehydration and also of gut contents which then makes it worse.

cx - reduced app, reduced faeces, BAR OR Not, often a hairball.
obs - surgery!
non-obs - more common and gradual onset.
dx -history and cx. xray? obs - see bubbles. ex lap?
tx - agressive medical! nutrition, rehydrate (100ml/kg/day) analgesia - buprenorphine etc then nsaids once rehydrated. this also reduces adhesions. prokinetics - rantidine (zantac) which is also and PPI. rabbits have a tight cardiac sphicter therefore cannot release gas easily. you may want to decompress the stomach or perform a gastrotomy?
dysbiosis - usually overgrown clostridia, may be due to AB's sudden diet change. get endotoxaemia, usually younger rabbits. tx - PEN. ???
tyzzers - c. piliforme, stress young, dairrhoea,tx -metronidazole, transfaunation, probiotics.
cocci - hepatic icterus and GIT. tx - sulpha/toltrazuril (baycox).


rabbit preventative meds? how often should the have a routine health check? when should you neuter? and why?
what kin dof parasite control do they need?
what can you vaccinate for? when should you do this?

every 6m/o! vaccs and check diet etc etc. dental.
neuter - male - 4m/o - behavior and breeding. etc
female - 4-6m/o reduces risks of uterine adenocarcioma. 50-80% plus behavior and fighting etc.
parasites - do not routinely worm. only if need it. pinworm - fembendazole.
flystrike - cyromazine (rearguard) often toxic shock to tx aswell.
fleas - imadocloprid ? not fipronil?
vaccs - myxo and RHD (calicivirus. ) both have a grave prog. insect vecotrs therefore do not have to come in contact with wild rabbits to get it.


Rabbits resp disease- very common. URT? cx? causes?
LRT - causes? cx? WHY DECREASE RR? why bilateral exopthalmus?
PASTURELLA? - CX? where from? what are chronic carriers called? how spread? what is a reverse h:l ratio?
why dont give steroids to rabbits?

URT - sneeze, snore, dyspnoea, ocluar discharge, conjunctivitis, dacrocystitis, mucosa erosions, discharge. may see on forelimbs from gorrming. auscaltate - rattles. may extend to eyes. - pasturella/ bordetella/trauma/fb/neoplasia.

LRT - head tilt, and extended to help breath. dyspnoea, cyanosis, anrexic, dep, pyrexic, hypothermic, leth. often DECREASED RESP RATE!!!. absent lung ounds. friction sounds. fluid.
bilateral exopthamus - thymoma - reduced vascular return to heart - eye has a large plexus behind it!!
dx - xray, ct, BAl, us, rhinoscopy, bronchoscope, chest drain, thoracocentesis.
tx - AB's and if pasturella - PEN! , chloramphenicol, erythromycin, azithro, tetra, fluoro's. (baytril) nasal swabs are good. nebulise, bronchdilators, nsaids. never steroids!
bloods - heterphilla, leucopaenia (reversed H:L RATIO) more neuts the lymphs!! PCR? - pasturelal/bord.
PASTURELLA - comensal, rhinitis, turbinate atrohpy, snuffles, sinussitis. chronic carriers, repro disease also. enters via nose, wounds.
Never steroids to a rabbit! - or any exotic. unless badly needed.


Cv disease rabbit - cx? dx? tx? monitor?

secndary resp signs. reduced app. dyspnoea, tachypnoea, hind limg eak, ex intol, leth, syncope, collapse, death

dx - ecg, us, xray, bp.

tx - start at low dose meds. and work up. diuretics - care of GIT as cause dehydration. montior creat and urea.


skin disease rabbits..........name 5? what do you treat with PEN why never give orally? fur mite? otitis? syphillis? sore hocks? urine scald?

1) cheytiella parasitovorax - fur mite. pruritis along back. alopecia!, zoonotic, dx - tape, tx - ivermectin.
2) psoroptes cuniculi - otitis externa, pruritic and thick black crusts. may spread to face and neck. secondary bacterial. tx - ivermectin/sela.
3) treponema cuniculi - ulcers and scabs - spirochaete. 'rabbit shyphilis' stress predisposes as can be carriers. silver stain of biopsy. tx - PEN once every 7d for 3 doses. treat all exposed. vesicles burst and ulcerate - kits become carriers form passage by genitalia. infected bucks - pass venereally.
4) plantar pododermatitis - wet bedding and hard floors. prone and hair on bottom of feet and no foot pads. 'sore hocks' REXBREED! as no guard hairs. chronic ulcerative granulmoas. esp if overweight. seconard bacteria - osteomyelitis. tx- address cause. debride and clean. AB's and dressings. prevent by bedding exercise and reduce obesity.
5) perineal urine scald - hard to tx. polyuria/incontinent? husbandry? abnormal stance? not grooming? sludgy bladder - abnormal retention of calcium crstalluria. tx - clip and clean and nsaids, treat primary. barrier cream.


rabbit neuro disease - main one? what is it? how is it shed? route of infection?
resistant why?
which organs targeted?
what happens if infected in utero?
tx? px?

encephalitozoon cuniculi. protozoa. shed in urine. spores in environment. route - ingest spores from water/food contaminated by urine. hygiene paramount.
spores killed by boil/autoclave etc. trans by ingest, inhale, transplacental - foetus.
brain and kidney are mainly targeted.
may get carriers - stress!
cx - head tilt, toticollis, hind limb paresis, tremors, convulsions, incontinence, cataracts and death. infected in utero - cataracts - penetrates lens - remove.
ddx - otitis, spinal, toxo, listeria.
dx - ig ab essays. PM. PCR? - only teel you if shedding. kidney biop. CNS - at pM.
TX - fenbend orally for 4 weeks 1xd.
px - panacur.


RBO5 - clin techs and diag.
- how to handle....?
where can you take blood from? how much? EMLA why? if very sick how much can you take?
IO catheter - why? where? LA/GA? why should you flush with heparinised saline when in?

can scruff them but must support the rear as they can kick and break their back. put on non slip surfaces. may do a bunny burrito or trance.

bloods- 10% safely. if ill - 0.5ml /100g. marginal ear vein, lateral saphenous, cephalic, jugular, use EMLA first as it is a local AN.

IO - admin drugs and fluids. if IV limited. prox femur/tibia/humerus. asepsis! LA lidocaine/GA. flush first. and bandage


CLIN techs -
urine collection? how? why give diazepam? to sedate?

nasolacrimal cannulation? why prone to blockage? if patent on flush what do you see? if not patent what do you see?

Oral meds/food? if wont swallow?

free flow, litter tray, manual express, cystocentesis, catheterise - diazepam (reduces urethral spasm).

nasolacrimal cannulation - prone to block as there are 2 narrow bends. dacrycycstitis. if patent - see at ipsilateral nare, if not - see bulge of eye - leave!

oral meds/food - syringe. not much at one time. dont rush. eg fibre slop. if wont swallow - stomach tube.


clin techs - routes for drug admin? why not IM?

NG tube? used for? how much at once? flush before and after!
measure length from?

euth - how? vein? sedate? how else could you give it?

roites - s/c, i/p, i/o, i/v, sub conjunctival. not I/M painful and s/c just as good.

NG tube - fluids, food, meds. easily blocked - use fine grind. flush with water to prevent air going in as they cant get rid of it due to tight cardiac sphincter. 10ml.kg.day. measure - external nares to caudal sternum. LA - nostril. secure and collar.

euth - iv pentobarb. marginal ear vein and sedate - hypnorm /diazepam. if not i/v - give by well perfused organs eg. liver or kidney. or I/O.


Rabbit clin path - urinalysis? USG? PH? protein - whats normal?
ketones - assess? glucose? - whats normal? why may it be increased? blood - why get a false haematuria? - how to diff?
cytology? E.CUNICULI - see what? if shedding? (9 weeks)

USG - 1.003 - 1.036. higher is haemoconcentrated (dehydrated)
ph - alkaline. acidotic - need support.
protein - trace is normal. unreliable. up:uc - less than 0.4 - increaded in crf.
ketones - assess anorexia - hepatic lipidosis.
glucose - trace is normal. may increase due to stress or alpha 2 agonists.
bloods - false haematuria - presence of plant porphyrin pigment - use wood lamp to diff.
cyto - ca is normal. how was it collected? granular casts - advanced renal failure.
e.cuniculi - spores seen if shedding. gram positive. stains blue. PCR.


Rabbit - clin path. Haematology
why can regenerative anaemia occur in normal rabbits?
PCV - less than 30%?
PCV - more then 45%?
USG more than 1.036?
what are heterophils?
what is the H:L ratio? when is it opp? - resp disease. lymphocytic species - 60%
steroids lead to leucopaenia. reversed H:L ratio means?

regen anaemia due to shorter lifespan of the RBC's.
45% - dehydrated. and >1.036 USG.
heterophils and the rabbits neuts. phagocytose.
60% lymphs and less heterophils. - if this hcnages round - infection!!
seroids can also lead to leucopaenia.


clin path - Biochem.

Why cant you do a fasting sample?
glucose?why increased or decreased.

urea?increased or decreased?
creat? used to?
ca? - why increased or decreased.
bilirubin - diff in rabbits?
AP? ast? GGT? amylase? electrolytes? lead?

cant do fasting as eat caecotrophs.
glucose - increase - stress, pain, gi obs, alpha 2's,
decrese - ketotic, hepatic dysfunction, starved, anorexic, diarrhoea.

protein - polish rabbit is high
low if malnutrition, PLE, PLN.

urea - high if dehydrated, renal dysfunction
low if hepatic dysfunction.

creat - assess hydration and renal function. plus urea, usg. product of mm m=catabolism excreted at constant rate.

ca - reflects diet. independent of vit d. low if tetany. high if crf/neoplasia/diet.

po4 - high if renal disease
low if diet or poor intestinal absorb.

bilirubin - high if biliry obs. or liver etc. green biliverdin in rabbits.

alt - tissue damage
ap - biliry and enteric
ast - tissue + ck
ggt- kidneys
amylase - pancreatic disease high.
electrolytes - monitor fluid therapy.


ca metabolism in rabbits? why diff? excrete what kind of urine? diff kidneys?
ca reflects? depends on kidney for what? what % renally excreted?
why is urine thick and creamy?

excrete alkaline urine - ca precipitates in this and so urine thick and creamy. - my get sludge if not excretedd. reflects diet intake and is absobred from the intestines independant of vit d. depends on the kidneys for excretion and therefore osregulation. renal excretion = 45-60% compared to less than 2% in others. - mostly elim via GIT.


therapeutics - what drugs are licensed? which drugs should you never use in rabbits and why?

why care with oral AB'S?
what does place stand for and what does it refer to?
which AB's are safe to use orally?

why dont we use steroids often?

licensed - hypnorm, baytril, iso, tiacil eyedrops, fucithalmic eydrops, imadocloprid - advantage - fleas.

dont use oral ab's - dysbiosos - clostridia and endotoxaemia. etc. (PEN/CLINDAMYCIN)
place- pen, lincomycin, aminoglycosides, cphalo, erythromycin.

safe - tmps, fluror, metronidazole, tetra.

never - fipronil, steroids.

small animal expemtion scheme - allows to us non licensed!


rb07 - anaesthesia - what do you need to induce a rabbit?

need to pre med as very stressy! iv catheter and fluids and drugs, intubate and IPPV. o2 by face mask/box as soon as possible. my o2 while you get tube ready etc.
risks of underlying resp disease therefore always intubate!!


signs of pain in a rabbit?
what happens if stressed......to drugs doses? desirable to keep less stressed?
what is the main response to pain GI wise?

signs - anorexia, hunched, teeth grind, abdo , facial clues, 'rabbit grimace scale'
if stressed - more of drug needed therefore get more side effects. plus affects gut function and immune system.
response to pain = anorexia and GI stasis.


give some ways to reduce stress in a rabbit?

waiting area, kennels, consult room, companion, hide box, separate clothing, talk calmly and keep quiet, avoid sudden movements.


when would you definately not mask a rabbit down?

if they are stressed - always pre med


ways to reduce stress before AN?

familiar diet and water source, litter tray, sedate, handle correctly and non-slip, cover eyes, minimal handling and less interventions.


pre-op care? why dont fast? high risk?fluids rates?

fluids, analgesia, gi motility (zantac) and nutrition. until 1-2 hours before. probiotics and high fibre.
do not fast them. they do not vomit and also carry out coprophagy.
if starve - risk hypoglycaemia, low motility and less fermentation.
correct any deficits with fluids and feed.
resp disease = high risk - tx before. intubate!
pre emptive analgesia - depends on procedure. nsaids if hydrated! plus depends on the AN.
fluids - 100ml/kg/day. feed - tube. rantidine for motility, (zantac)


pre-med? options? when can you use the face mask? why cant you use a facemask and no premed?
breathing system? why uncuffed?

hypnorm (fentanyl/fluanisone) - reverse with partial mu or with naloxone.

breath hold on induction agent - need to pre med first! (volatile agents)
ayres t piece plus uncuffed therefore bigger diameter.

hypnorm and midazolam 10 mins later - good as mm relax and deepens anaethesia. plus can reverse hypnorm with buprenorphine and carry on the analgesia.


induction? how to intubate. ?

triple drip - med, ket, butorphanol. domtorb (blue) s/c then volatile agent. (iso) the need lower doses! antipamezole to reverse. (alpha 2)
hypnorm and midazolam - s/c then i/v 10 mins later. then volatile agent.

intubate blind or using otoscope? LA spray if needed.


intra op care? how to monitor depth?
how else to monitor?
palpebral good or not?
use eye osition or not?
body temp?
catheter where?

depth - ear pinch, hind limb pinch should be absent.
also poulse ox, capnograph, ecg,

cant use eye position!
palpebral - lost if too deep.
monitor body temp!(39)
eyes need lacrilube
ear vein catheter.


when should you vacc for myxo and RHD?

at 5 weeks and annual. plus vector control. cyromazine (rearguard) imadocloprid - fleas etc.


peri op fluid therapy?

iv catheter! ear vein good! crystalloids 4ml/kg/hour. (double intra op) if short can use s/c fluids.


analgesia?? ops.

opioids - good if dehydrated! eg. bupre or butorphanol. partial mu so care with what you are inducing with!!
nsaids are good if hydrated. meloxicam/carprofen/ketoprofen.
CRI - low dose ket etc
LA - mepivicaine - short acting and fast onset
lidocaine - longer acting and loger onset
bupivicaine - often used as long acting.


post op care?? what should this consist of?

nurse and support. analgesia important as you want them to eat! nutrition also important. anorexic - syringe feed at 10-15ml/kg 4-5 times a day. NG tubes!
prokinetics - rantidine! /metaclopramide/cisapride
fluids, bw, pass droppings etc. keep stress levels to a minimum!!


rb08 - surgery. general points of surgery!what tears easily? heamostasis?
prone to? - reduce adhesions by?
handling of GIT?

skin tears easily!
caecum tears easily as thin walled!
need careful haemostasis - 15-20% loss - hypovolaemic shock. - ligiatures, haemostatic clips, cautery etc.
suture reactions are common - prone to adhesions and caseous pus!
warm abdo fluids!! - good to reduce adhesions and keep warm! nsaids also good for adhesion. or can use ca channel blocker!
intradermal sutures are good or tissue adhesive.
need minimal and gentle handling of the GIT - reduce adhesions and ileus!!


OVH? - surgery. why good to do and what age? 4-6m/0!! approah? problems?

reduce incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma! 950-80%) plus behavioral and breeding. ventral midline. 1/ way between umbilicus and pubis. care!!! caecum and bladder directly under mm - thin!
repro anatomy is diff. - alot of fat too and quite friable. large and flccid vagina. retrograde urine is also common. haem is rare as vessels are small.


orchiectomy? castrate! age?
what sdifferent about the rabbit? - what approach must you take?
2 methods?
how long should you keep away from the female?

4-5m/o reduces bahavior and mating etc. open inguinal ring therefore must do closed or close the tunic after open. dorsal recumbency.

2 methods - a) dont incise vaginal tunic - ie. closed op. remove testis and double ligiature around cord.
b) open method - incise tunic. but close up with contnuous sutures. and close skin up too.
keep away from femal for 6 weeks.


c-sec? why would you do it? approach? how close?
why give oxytocin? lavage with saline before you close up?

reason - uterine inertia or dystocia - stabilise 1st
midline - xiphiod to pubis, avoid mammary glands and bv's.
pack off uterus! moist swabs.
incise over fetal limb nearest cervices and remove with placenta.
milk all others out.
close with double incision layer (inverting)
oxytocin - stim uterine contraction and milk prod
lavage abdo with sterile saline before close to reduce adhesions.


abscess removal op....why doesnt baytril work? types of abscesses? why thick pus?

abscess removal op....usually anaerobes - therefore baytril doesnt work!! peridontal, fbs, pulmonary, retrobulbar - tooth roots, usually cant drain. eg. surgery! enucleate etc. amputate.
usually think walled and caseous pus - lack enzmye to make it liquid.
us ct xray, haem etc dx.
surgery! need wide margin. pus uauslly sterile. - c+s.
may use pmma beads. ab - gentamycin, amikacin, cephalo - not orally.
good prog if excise.
poor - osteomyelitis.