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Flashcards in Avian Deck (98):

name some psittacines? what do they look like?

budgie - cere - dimoerphic
cockateil - grey and cheek patches - bars on tail of female - dimorphoc
grey parrot
blue amazon
macaw - colourful
cockatoo - white and yellow
parakeet, lorikeet, ecilectus parrot - male is green, famle is red.


nam some passerines?

canary, finch, myna


raptor? eg's?

falcon, hawk, eagle, owl etc


birds faeces contains? hat does chlamydia look like?

faeces, urates (green) urine (liquid)
nb) if green/yellow and ocular discharge ddx. chlamydia.


which artery would you monitor the heart during AN? where do youtake blood from (3 sites?)

doppler on the cubital artery. (radial)
take blood from the right jugular, the basillic and the metatarsal.


where is the uropyial gland?

top of the tail on the back. impacted?


how do you sex a bird?
budgie? - cere?

budgie - male is blue when mature
female - brown
immature - all pink/pale. (until 8 m/o)

monomorphic - sex by PCR.


what can you find in the oral cavity? what is the coelomic cavity?

oral - beak, choana, choanal pappillae, glottis, tongue. - no epiglottis.

coelomic cavity - like abdomen.


explain ring compression? how to treat? what are they used for?

close ring for ID purposes. unessecary and may harm bird. compresses tarsometatarsus. eg. to small of growing. inflamm therefore even smaller. parrots may cruch it with their beak. may also catch on things and cause fractures etc. remove with dremel - burr under GA! analgesia and AB's and dress wounds. may need to amputate.


wing clipping? what problems can it lead to?

never do psittacines!
usually done to prevent excape or help with training. may lead to other problems - pshycological, keel damage - falling, poor moutling - weight of feathers triggers it, feather plucking.


what is imping?

used to replace damaged feathers. like a graft. cannot solve wing clip. - have to remove feather stumps under GA and analgesia.


claw trimming? how? what causes overgrowths? haem control?

what caused it? treat that. use the dremal - grind down. assess the need for it? perch design and nutrition canlead to the need.
high protein and liver disease should be suspected as this leads to abnormal keratin met - cause overgrowths.
need AN/sedation. haem control with silver nitrate.


beak trimming - ? underlying problems? how done?

do they need it? -congenital? trauma, malnutrition. correct diet? dremel under GA. generates heat so need - dry cotton bud/damp to cool it down. analgesia!


what should you consider on hospitalisation? what is the main zoonotic risk and how do you treat it? cx? dx? what must a bird of prey have?

airspace - spread of disease. F10 disinfectant spray mists etc. are good. remote obs - as they hide dsease. want to keep less stressed. weigh them often!! must have a prech for a bird of prey! and a tail guard. main zoonotic risk - chlamydophila. -resp ocular nasal discharge, green urate and dyspnoea, PCR faeces. doxycycline for 4-6 weeks!!


which diseases are good to test for?

chlam, PBFD, PDD.


visual exam what may you notice? what is the syrinx.?

fluffed up - cold. rr and effort. if dyspnoeic will tail bob. voice change - obstructed or infected syrinx. (bifurcation of trachea) subtle changes are important!


exam of faeces - ? what may you see?

stressed - watery
seed eat - darker and less urates and urine.
extruded diet - much more
fruit - high fluid content.


which parts of the body are important to examine? anatomy of the stomach? which species do not have a uropyial gland? feet!

eyes - swollen, discharge, cataracts, ulcers
nostrils -
beak -
cere - oral cavity, crop - full crop in sick bird is acute. like a doggy bag.
2 chambered stomach - provent - secretes acid, gizzard - grind and dgest food - need grit.
coelomic cavity?
uropygial gland - not present in amazon or macaw!
basillic vein
pectoral mm


clinical presentations - regurgitation? ddx?

bahavioral or sexual in male budgies.
thyroid hyperplasia - iodine def?
crop burn - leave before operate
crop candidiasis


vomiting ddx? what drug is toxic to grey parrots?

fb, impacted, tumour, gastric ulcers, obstructed, lead, drugs - itraonazole, doxy - grey parrot x itraconazole!!


crop stasis ddx?

infected, esp, neonates. full in acute presentation.


diarrhoea ddx?

infectious, parasites, PDD, intussuseption, diet change, lots of fruit, liver disease, fb, lead.


melaena ddx?

enteritis, cocci, ulcers, agonal sign


haematochezia? ddx?

enteritis, cloacal pappilloma. cloacal prolapse, egg-bind.


undigested food in faeces?



Tenesmus? ddx?

egg bind, cloacal prolapse, gi parasites, organomegaly.


biliverdinurea? ddx?

hepatic disease, heamolysis.


haematuria? ddx?

lead, kidney tumour


polyuria? ddx?

kideys, psychogenic?, high water in food


dyspnoea? ddx?

pneumonia, air sacculitis, tracheal obs. sever voice change is emergency - asspergillus?


feather loss? pecking? clin case eg of pecking?

behavioral? parasites? PBFD? nutritional? folliculitis? peck feet and legs - gout?, OA? etc.......put fusidic acid on the legs to help - bird transfers ti to rest of body and annoys it therefore starts to peack whole body.


ddx neuro signs?

lead, low ca, HE, trauma, newcastle disease, compressed leg nerves - dystocia or nephromegaly, otitis.


AV02 - what temp should you keep a bird at? why care when trying to heat up? what is the maintenace fluid rate of a bird?
any sick bird presumed ?

40-42. (rabbit is 38-39) care with focused heat!!
fluids - 50ml/kg/day. (rabbit is 100)
any sick bird is presumed acidotic.


how can you admin fluids to a bird and how much do they need? when would you use a crop /provent tube?
s/c - how can you reduce pain? ad's and disad's?

try fresh water from a familiar source.
orally - only if you can. can use crop tube or proventriculus tube.
crop - 1% of crop at any one time - budgie - 1.5ml, parrot 20ml.
pro used if - crop burn risk of regurg etc. bent solid metal tube used.

s/c - inguinal skin fold. worry about air sacs. can ive large volumes! well tolerated. slow uptake and can be ainful. - reduce pain by adding hyaluronidase to fluid. GA.

i/v - basillic, r.jug, medial metatarsal. good if collapsed. may need GA. rapid! may place catheter.

i/o - not femur or humerus!! - aerated!! full of air therefore will drown it.
can use prox tibia, distal or prox ulna. risks infection and can be painful. GA good.

rate - 50ml/kg/day. assume 10% dehydrated. replace 50% in first day and 25% in next 2 days.


feeding birds..... how? why dont rush? if find raptor starved for a few days what do you do first?

weigh!! and monitor weight. take you r time. dont rush or can cause sour crop. temperature has a huge effect on requirements. if starved - give sugar and water tube in provent!


why is temp so important during AN? esp small birds?

hypothermia. need to be 40-42. small esp as very high SA:BW ratio. therefore lose heat easily. must actively heat then and keep room warm.


AN - cardio resp. how controlled? where is doppler placed? vent rates? recumbency?

intubate and IPPV. uncuffed tubes. use open curcuit and cant move air through closed. sternal recumbency. take pre -AN RR! (10-20 - if not breathing on their own) 2 if they are. doppler over cubital artery! fluids. BP - cuff on tibiotarsus.


how do you induce? how can you monitor?

face mask then intubate (iso) /sevo
inj rarely used.
could use ket and medetomidine etc. and propfol.
CNS - reflexes. - palpebral absent and corneal present - if not then too deep.
recover rapidly!


which birds do you need to starve?

carnivores - may vomit.


which analgesia can you use?

butorphanol - high kappa receptors! works very well. iv/im. may get resp depression.
meloxicam - nsaid. watch side effects. iv or oral.
tramadol - opiod like - home use.

do not use bupre - doesnt work.

LA - bupivicanie. and lidocaine.


surgery. - feather cysts? which birds? why? where usually?

canaries - feather cant erupt and cyst grows. commonly on wings. need surgery if large or can open and empty - care of haem. if can tclose then leave to heal by second intention and bandage.


crop surgery - eg crop burn. why else?

take biopsy - PDD. resolve crop burn. biop - lower right side. car eas directly under skin.


coeliotomy? why?

dystocia, prolapse, neo, fb. peritonitis, heria, repro, use endoscopy if poss. either approach.


ortho surgery - long bone?
lower leg?
humerus and femur harder why?

long bone - external fixator/im pin and internal.
lower leg - tape splint
humerus and femur are pneumotic bones.


bandages? wing? ball bandage?

figure of 8 for wing. ball bandage - for foot.


principles of radiology? in birds? which views?

collimate, short eposure times as have high RR. LM AND DV VIEWS. extend wings out or back. align spine and keel and stretch legs out. label.


anatomy.....white bits in stomach? crop should be? hourglass shape contains? which view? NORMAL XRAY.

white bits are grit! crop should have gas and be black. elongated spleen of passerine. hourglass - around spine when seen from dv view.


what may you see on an abnormal xray? what is the normal gi transit time in parrots?

3 hours. good for contrast studies. give barium via crop tube. fractures, gastric fb's,
uper hourglass - cardiomegaly, hydropericardium
lower - egg yolk, hepatomegaly, repro, stomachs.
may even xray from their perch - lessens stress and no GA needed.


why would you see loss of detail on an xray?

ascites? pericardial effusion?


haematology? - which blood cells? what would a toxic heterophil look like? 3 sites to take blood from?

rbc, thrombocytes (no platelets) eos, baso, mono, lympho
heterophils - neuts - if toxic - basophillic cyto, granules, segmented nucleus, low chromatin density.
3 sites - basillic, medial metatarsal, r.jugular.


why would you see a leucopaenia? heterophillia?
which breed are high leucocytes normal in?

immune suppression - PBFD.
hetero - toxic - infection, inflamm - aspergillus?
breed - macaw.


BIOCHEM - uric acid?
bile acids?
low ca?
high po4?

uric acid - high is kidney disease, dehydrated.
bile acids - high in liver disease
ast - liver disease, mm damage
ck - mm
cholestrol - obese, female repro, can be normal
glucose - diabetes
globs - infection - aspergillus, chlamydia, mycobacterium
low ca - total/ionised
po4 - kidney disease if high


cytology?? - faeces, crop, skin?

faeces - mainly gram positive is normal. (dark blue)gram negative - red = diseased.
avian gastric yeast - marcorhabdus ornithogaster - very large gram +ve.
candidiasis - yellow, around beak, stress or ab's.
urates - comtamination
clostridia -
trichomoniasis - caseous material around beak. enlarged mass under chin. parasite so moves
crop - tricho, candidiasis, macrorhabdus.
skin - gout, mites , knemidocoptes - scaly face, red mites, lice, bacteria/mallassezia. - if feather pluck may be secondary. ticks.



ascarids - smaller psittacines - wl or fatal. - causes impaction
tx - fenbendazole, ivermectin
capillaria - bipolar eggs. tx albendazole. plaques in mouth seen
cocci - diarrhoea esp. passerines. red/purple keel. distended guts. white creamy git substance. tx - toltrazuril (baycox) tmps.
giardia - metronidazole etc.


AV04 - nutrition. if fed on a seed diet what deficiencies seen? ad's and disad's?

vit a ca aa's and nutrients. - they may select. also cause obesity. see blunted choanal papillae with vit a def. they are cheap, available and easily accepted. they allow natural behavior and no toxicity. but they are unbalanced, bird selects and risks aflatoxicosis.


pulse diet?
fruit? which one toxic to parrots?
pellets? - how do you get them to eat it.
ideal diet? grit?

pulses - well digestible. cheap, no toxicity, allow natural behavior, they are low in fat therefore not accepted well. and they are unbalanced.

fruit - wild ones are better. short expire date, avacado - toxic to parrots
may see watery faeces.

pellets - bird does not select. they are epensive, may get formulation error, varied composition, dont allowed natural behavior and are not well accepted. - may add fruit juice!
grit - high in ca care.
ideal - not more the 50% formulated. - need a combo. dont add supps.


hpw can you make a diet transition easier?

weigh! if sick just give whatever they will eat. do it gradually. reduce feed available. mix with favourite foods. soak in sweet juices. try from an early age and hospitalise.


explain hypovitaminosis A?

massively diagnosed. usually seeds in captive parrots!
cx - squamous met of epithelial membranes. changes in vision, repro, immunity
white plaques in mouth, resp infection, atrophy on choanal papillae.
vit a stored in liver for years - good reserves. many ddx - overdiagnosed. low in seeds and nuts. big lump under chin - impacted salivary glands.


iodine deficiency? usually of what.? main cx? tx?

usually budgies on seed diets. hypothyroid - goitre. causes regurg. change of voice and insp. responds well to iodine supps.


hypocalcaemia? causes? esp seen in which breed?
may be secondary to what? cx? tx? what other condition may predispose this?

rickets in growing birds? metobolic bone diseasse. seconadry hypoparahyroidism. grey parrots esp. need high levels
may be due to low vit d or low uv-b or chronic egg layers - cockatiel and canaries esp. etc.
cx- sot shelled eggs, bones deformed, dystocia, twitch and convulsions,
tx - ca and uv-b, investigate other problems.


excess energy? common in?
side effects? (4)

budgies and amazons!
atheroschlerosis - med to large birds, rekated to age. may use anabolic steroids or carnitine - inflamm of ateries, reduced elasticity, mineralised.
resp signs

obese- pododerm often. padded perches good.

lipoma - acc of s/c/ fat. budgies and lovebirds. surgery. FNA - droplets of fat.

xanthoma - s/c cholestrol crystals. budgies and lovebirds. usually tip of wing. often need amputate. FNA. cholestrol crystals.


excess ca? linked to? why?
leads to? what is gout?

linked to vit d. (not rabbits - sludge) may over supp/formulation error. causes renal failure and gout. (visceral and articular) uric acid deposits.


excess protein? causes? may get? what is angelwing? tx?

may lead to kidney disease and growing problems. may also get gout. - esp if dehydrated!

angelwing - growing ducks and geese. distal metacarpal rotates. - twisted. reduce protein diet.


excess iron? seen in? cx?

haemosiderosis - no path
haemochromatosis - path

esp fruit eaters, toucans etc.
cx - hapetomegaly, liver disease, ass to vit a excess, dyspnoea, ascites, abdo distedned.
dx - biop, histo, enzymes
tx - phlebectomy - remove blood.
tannins. - bind iron.


what dietary deficiencies do we see? (3)

vit a, iodine, ca


what dietary excesses do we see? (4)

energy, ca, iron, protein


ASPERGILLOSIS? where from? predisposing environment? causes? cx? dx? tx? intralesional meds? systemic? trachea?

not contagious. a. fumigatus.
ibiquitous fungus. inhale spores from environment.
environment - decomposing veg, material or damp litter, faeces or urine. lack of vent, immune suppression.

chronic - formation of granulomas in resp system - air sacs, wl, voice change, dyspnoea, treat as an emergency.

dx - cx, bloods. detect abs, endoscopy. biopsies. intralesional meds.

tx - remove tracheal granuloma. place air sac tube. AMPHOTERICIN B. into the lesions. and systemic. nebulise. endo! o2 chamber, history, diag tests, place air sac tube, traceoscopy, remove granuloma. may sedate. itraconazole - not grey parrot. variconazole - ex
terbinafine - mild. combine with azoles. F10 - nebulise.


candidiasis? what is it? where from? what may cause -ab's? main site? cx? dx? tx?

yeast. c. albicans. seen if you use too much AB's. crop is main site.
cx - regurg, vomit, distended, slow to empty crop, beak necrosis, white plaques in oral cavity.
dx - cyto, culture,
ddx - low vit a
tx - nystatin directly. only active in git - not absorbed. antifungal.


avian gastric yeast? caused by? where found? esp in?
cx - ?

megabacteria, macrorhabdus ornithogaster. large gram positive. budgies and canaries. provent and ventricular disease.
cx - wasting leth, passage of undigested food. dilated stomachs. ulcers. dx - cyto
tx - oral amphotericin b /sodium benzoate.


avian chlamydiosis? c.psittaci. what disease? zoo!
tx? what may inj's lead to?

resp and liver disease. obligate intracellular. zoonotic!
shed in body secretions. cx - mouth breath/voice change. green urates and ocular discharge.
dx - serology, PCR, choanal swab. detect carrier - pcr faeces. 3-5d.
tx - doxy 4-6 weeks - inj 1xweek. inj may induce tissu reaction and ast and ck rise.
fluoro/azithromycin. isolate! support! test again in 2-3 weeks. USE MASK AND GLOVES.


PBFD? what kind of virus? shed via? trans via?
chronic? - alwasy fatal.
acute - age? cx? severe anaemia! which breed esp? what may carry it?
dx? pm?
if positive and healthy? - action?

psittacine beak and feather disease. circovirus. stable in environment. shed via feather dander and faeces. trans via inhaled, ingested, vertical.
cx - ep cells, git, immune, variety.

chronic - classic. feather loss and deform. shaft fracture. oral ulcers. beak shiny as no powder down. secondary infections due to immune supression. - fatal after years.

acute - younger birds. esp. grey parrots. anaemia and leucopaenia. dep and diarrhoea. feathers change colour and sudden death. budgies can carry it. french moult - absent first flight feathers. may survive and re-grow.
dx - pcr. feathers/bloods. severe leucopaenia - false +ve.

pm - pcr from frozen. liver spleen, skin.
+ve and healthy - quaatine. re-test in 90d. quar and disinfect. screen birds!


pox virus - excreted in? trans via? breeds? 3 forms? dx?

skin disease. excreted in saliva, nasal, lacrimal, faeces.
trans - mosquitos, driect, fomites, inhale, ingest, wounds.
breeds - lovebirds, canarie, pigeon.
3 forms - cutaneous - scabs on face
diptheritic - wet pox, mm lesions, resp disease.
septicaemic - passerines, pneumonia, diptheritic enteritis.

dx - cx and h. biop, cyto, - eosinophillic cytoplasmic inclusion bodies. 'bollinger bodies' ectoparasites linked. - allow entry.


PDD? type of virus? path? cx? common in larger birds!
dx? tx?

proventricular dilatation disease.
lymphoplasmacytic ganglioneuritis in the nerves on the GIT. esp stomachs. lesions also on brain.
dilation of stomachs. increase git transit time (3hrs)
cx - wl, abnormal faeces, undigested seeds in faeaces. leth and neuro signs. common in larger psittacines. vertical trans also. trans by faeces, secretions, feather powder.
dx - history , xrays, pcr, serology (faeces and crop swab)
alwasy fatal
supportive tx only. screen birds! disinfect!!


heavy metal poisoning? 2 types?
lead - common in? sources? if in mm? cx? dx? tx?
zinc? where from? cx? tx?

lead and zinc.
lead - common in waterfowl, lead shots, fishing, batteries, old houses.
not toxic if found in the mm.
cx - neuro, leth, weak, vomit, pupd, haematuria, death. ddx. PDD.
dx - cx, xrays, blood lead analysis.
tx - chelation therapy. CAEDTA. followed by oral penacillamine. supportive. follow up xrays and meausure blood levels.

zinc - wire cages. same cx as lead. parrots that roam free esp. may cause haemorrhagic gastritis.


gout - what is it? 2 types? due to?
dx? tx?

due to kidney problem or diet high in protein. uric acid deposits in joint and on viscera.
atricular - deposits of white material in joints esp legs.
visceral - liver kidneys, pericardium, air sacs.
dx - FNA and cyto. crystals. endoscopy. blood uric acid. care as it can rise after a meal. esp meat /fish. starve!
tx - fluid therapy! ALLOPURINOL. reduces uric acid levels. may give AB's incase of kidney disease.


feather picking behavior and self mutilation? main reason? if on the head?
medical issues?
dx? tx?(many)

mainly due to attachment to owner, separation anxiety. if on thehead - suggests it was another bird. common in parrots.
medical - viral - PBFD. hypothyroid, folliculitis, liver disease, air sacculitis, parasites, repro.
behavioral - bored, sexual frustration, excited.

rule out using medical exam - orevent further damage - put a collar on!.
xrays bloods, endo, PBFD tests culture pcr, cyto.
tx - collar. may need to refer. husbandry? sedate? repro drugs, pull out damaged feathers. control cause. analgesia!! re grow in 8 weeks. remove collar in 2 m/o.


chronic egg laying? common in? what secondary problems may you see? what can trigger it?
how should youmagane it?

cockatiels!! excess stim of breeding behavior. another bird, person or object can trigger.
do not remove eggs, dont provide too much food, photoperiod?
tx - deslorhelin/cabergoline? - gnrh agonists.
husbandry mod. reduce day length to 8 hours. reduce calories. or HYSTERECTOMY. cant remove ovaries as too attachd.


egg bind/dystocia? cause?

ca/vit d def. oversized or misshapen eggs, inertia, excess laying, obesity. cx - dyspnoea, hindlimbs weak, leth, abnorm faeces, wide stance, palpate? commin in smaller birds.
dx - xray, serum ca?
tx - stabilise, inj ca, oxytocin, PG's massage and lube, ovocentesis. surgery? GA? often very mineralised egg!


egg yolk peritonitis? caused by? prog? cx? dx?

ectopic ovulation, salpinigitis. metritis, neoplasia, ruptured ovaries, often need surgery and extensive lavage. poor prog.
leth and resp problems.
esp if chronic egg layer.
dx - aspirate and cyto - fat droplets. and phagocytosing. endoscope?


crop burn? cause? owner sees? when should you treat it? is it an emergency? tx?

hand reaered birds - formula too hot. owner sees food comign though neck. not an emergency as need to leave 5 days before surgery to see all the dead tissue anyway. open and remove dead skin. and stitch up. no rush! if surgery too quick then it will recur.


hat should you do with a lethargic bird and signficant wl?



av07 - chickens. which brred do most people have as backyard hens? why? which breed is kept for egg laying?

bantams are kept as they are smalls o good for little space and they lay small eggs. most large breeds have a bantam or miniature version.
eggs - pure traditional brred or hybrids. maybe even ex-battery hens.


what is the difference between heavy and light pure breeds? of chickens?

heavy - eat more and lay less eggs.
light - eat less and lay well. quite flighty.


what is the average life expectancy? or bantams?

most - 6-10 years
bantam 8-12years


explain the basic husbandry of a chicken?
floor space?
how often to clean?
lighting? when do light breeds come into lay? heavy? how long to lay one egg?
how do you tell when they are in lay? how long is the incubation for a fertile egg? what should you vacc for?

keep outside, shelter, protect from predation, safe area to roost and sleep. secluded area to lay. roam free and forage in the day. floor space - 30x30 cm per large. 20x20 if small.
dust free wood shavings are good. spot clean or clean every 1-2 weeks. or deep litter and remove 1xyear. clean nest boxes weekly.
do not use straw or hay as may harbour fungal spores.
perch s - broad. above nest box height. 15cm long for bantam and 23-25 for larger.
lights - 14 hours a day to continue laying.
light breeds come into lay at 18-20 weeks old and larger at 26 weeks.
25 hours to lay one egg therefore may miss a day if they ovulate in the dark.
in lay - 3 fingers between pin bones ventrally and oist loose cloaca.
incubate for 21 days.
vaccs - not routine but can do mareks. if rescued then normally vacc.


nutrition of chickens? all depends on?
when crumbs? when growers? when layer? whole grain?
why pellets AM? and grain PM?
if contain coccidiostat eg. monesin then care with?
why do they need grit?

depends on age!!
crumbs - up to 5 weeks
grower pellet - 16 weeks.
layer pellet /mash after that.

whole grain given after 12 weeks to provide enrich if scattered and supps diet.
pellets AM - easy to digest
grain PM - stays in crop to last overnight.
if contain monesin - care with horses.
grit - gizzard function to grind food up. use insoluble to prevent impactions.


legal requirements of keeping hens?

must register if over 50. very few licensed rpoducts. care with egg consumption. broilers - enroflox/toltrazuril.
AI and ND - are ND's/


what should the vet approach be to chicken meds? clin exam? history? what should you examine?
supportive therapy?

good history - age, method of hatching, rearing, diet, housing, flock size, prevent - meds. bio?
handle well and examine all. crop fill nostrils, heart resp, eyes, in mouth, abdo, uropygial gland, cloaca, feel for eggs, feet, feathers, wings etc etc.
support - fluids, feed, warmth, o2, iso for AN.


chicken resp diseases? what predisposes?
-mycoplasma? cx? tx?
-aspergillosis? hay and straw. prog? tx?
- infectious bronchitis? - type of virus? cx? eggs? tx? dx?

poor vent, ammonia, dust etc
mycoplasma - very common. m. gallisepticum/m.synoviae.
swollen joints, mild resp signs, nasal dischagre, foamy eyes, swollen eyelids, sinuses, sneeze and gasp. tx - enroflox, tylosin, tetra, may recur, can vacc
- asper - fungal spores. stressed birds. poor prog. intrconazole and nebulise F10.
- infectious bronchitis - coronavirus. renal damage, oviduct infection. wrinkled eggs!! spread rapidly. myco can predispose. vacc. dx- cx and pcr/serology.


repro disease in chickens?
- egg bind? esp if? tx?
- egg coelomitis? causes? cx? tx?
- prolapsed oviduct? presents as? tx?

- egg bind - esp if low ca. warm, lubricate, ca, fluids, if in oviduct poor prog. may break and remove.
- egg ceolomitis - peritonitis. very common. release of ovum into free abdo. ascending bacterial infection. toxic. dep leth swollen and cessation of laying. support and ab's - poor prog.
- prolapse - emergency. severly traumatised. pecked cloaca. dying bird. surgery - salpingectomy.


digestive tract disease in chickens?
-sour crop? due to?
- crop impaction? due to? tx? ddx?

- sour crop - candida albicans. may be due to ab's often secondary.
- impaction - ingest long grass - forms a ball. soften with liquid paraffn, massage, milk out of mouth and head held down.
severe - GA and remove.
ddx - heavy metal or low ca.


ectoparasites on chickens?
-cocci - age? cx? dx? tx?
-nematodes? - cx? dx? tx?
-tapeworms? - cx?

- cocci - 4-6 w/o eimeria. all direct life cycles. rapid re-infect. poor gorwth and watery diarrhoea. dx - oocysts. tx - toltrazuril as licensed. good hygiene, bio, coccidiostats fed until 6 weeks. vacc. - orally to day olds.
- nematodes - common. wl, going light, impactions,
dx - fwec, see faeces.
tx - fenbendazole, licensed powder feed. also for prophylactic use.
- tapeworms - wl. trachea. gape worm - gasping.
snicking - and neck extended.


bacterial diarrhoea in chickens? due to?

salmonella. many types. hygiene and vermin cx. vacc. amoxicillin.


ectonparasites chickens?
-red mites? cx? tx?
- northern fowl mite? tx?
- scaly leg mite? tx?
- depluming mites? - tx?
- chicken louse? tx?

- red mites - common. d. gallinae. feed at night. anaemia, leth and death. survive 6 m/o off host. tx - dermithrin spray.
- northern fowl mite - o. silvarum. live on birds. dirty moist patches. ivermectin
- scaly leg mite - c. mitans. irritate and build up yellow musty ans smelly. ivermectin
- depluming - c. gallinae. feather loss fipronil
- chicken louse -m. galinae. see with naked eye. eggs clump together - sugar. fipronil/ivermectin.


bumble foot in chickens?

bruised from jumping from a height. eg if wing clipped. secondary staph. fracture repair.


marek's disease? caused by? also called? cx? tx? vacc? how long can it survive off host?

fowl paralyisis. alpha herpes virus. gallid herpes virus.
cause lymphoid tumours, demyelinates peripherl nerves. wing droop and leg paralysis.
tumours on organs as well as brachial and sciatic nerves. immunosuppressed wl and die.
vagus nerve infected - heard to breath and dilation of crop.
no tx.
vacc at 1 d old.
may survive a year in feather dust and dander.


newcastle disease? chickens? caused by? signs?
outbreak cx?

paramyxovirus. fowl pest. resp and neuro signs. less eggs and green diarrhoea. feral pigeons. vacc.


behavioral problems in chickens? why will they peck eg. a prolapsed oviduct?

feather peck, vent peck, evisceration, cannibalism. - welfare issue.
stressed and overcrowding! or heating
hens - attracted to red mucosa, common just after laying when cloaca still exposed and everted to peck each other or eg. prolapsed oviduct!