FHDT: Pathology Week 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FHDT: Pathology Week 3 Deck (77)
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1

Congenital malformations are associated with
Answer

acquisition in utero

chromosomal defects

familial tendency

genetic transmission

maternal drug ingestion

acquisition in utero

2

Disorderly arrangement of maturing squamous of epithelium of the skin with an intact basement membrane is by definition
Answer

hyperplasia

metaplasia

neoplasia

dysplasia

anaplasia

dysplasia

3

A mass composed of a mixture of normal tissues NOT native to the location and in abnormal amount or arrangement is called a(n)
Answer

hamartoma

teratoma

mixed tumor

choristoma

embryonal tumor

choristoma

4

An increase in the size of an organ caused by an increase in the number of cells is called
Answer

hypertrophy

regeneration

hyperplasia

metaplasia

atrophy

hyperplasia

5

Loss of orderly maturation of epithelium is by definition
Answer

hyperplasia

metaplasia

neoplasia

Anaplasia

Dysplasia

Dysplasia.
Dysplasia is loss of orderly maturation of epithelium, disordered growth and maturation.

Not Anaplasia b/c anaplasia is loss of differentiation in cells

6

An acquired decrease in the size of a normally developed tissue or organ is
Answer

hypoplasia

neoplasia

metaplasia

atrophy

aplasia

atrophy.
Atrophy: Is a decrease in the size of a normally formed tissue or organ, resulting from a decrease either in the size of individual cells or in the number of cells composing the tissue.

7

A mass composed of normal tissues native to the location but in abnormal amount or arrangement is called a(n)
Answer

hamartoma

teratoma

mixed tumor

choristoma

embryonal tumor

hamartoma

Hamartoma- Is a tumor-like mass resulting from the overgrowth of mature, histologically normal cells and tissue that normally occur in the affected part, but often with one element predominating.

8

Mature squamous epithelium replacing the pseudostratified columnar epithelium normally in bronchial lining is an example of
Answer

hyperplasia

Metaplasia

neoplasia

dysplasia

anaplasia

Metaplasia
Metaplasia is an abnormality of cellular differentiation in which one type of mature cell is replaced by a different and the latter is not normal for the tissue involved.

9

An increase in the size of an organ caused by an increase in the size of the constituent cells but not an increase in their number is called
Answer

hypertrophy

regeneration

metaplasia

hyperplasia

atrophy

hypertrophy

10

A congenital decrease in the size of a developing tissue or organ is
Answer

atrophy

neoplasia

metaplasia

hypoplasia

aplasia

hypoplasia.

Agenesis is the failure of an organ to develop due to failure of the primordial organ to develop. It's the failure of an organ to develop during embryonic growth and development due to the absence of primordial tissue
aplasia is the defective development resulting in the absence of all or part of an organ or tissue.

11

Metaplasia is thought to be caused in most cases by
Answer

genetic mutation

oncogenic virus

chronic irritation

immunologic reaction

congenital defect

chronic irritation

12

Mature squamous epithelium in bronchial lining is an example of
Answer

hyperplasia

metaplasia

neoplasia

dysplasia

anaplasia

metaplasia

13

A cervical biopsy of a 24-year-old woman shows maturated squamous epithelium replacing the expected cuboidal mucosal surface of the endocervical glands. This is an example of
Answer

anaplasia

dysplasia

hyperplasia

metaplasia

neoplasia

metaplasia

14

Autolysis is produced by
Answer

antibodies

endogenous enzymes

phagocytic leukocytes

bacterial enzymes

anoxia

endogenous enzymes

15

Lethally injured cells show an increase in
Answer

adenosine triphosphate activity

pH

RNA synthesis

sodium content

sodium content

16

Electron microscopic examination of cell reveals a simple swelling of the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum without any significant additional abnormality. Which of the following is true?
Answer

this is inconsistent with changes observed with cell injury

the likelihood of functional derangement in very low, if at all

this is consistent with hypoxic cellular injury

these changes would not be manifested with light microscope

this is consistent with hypoxic cellular injury

17

Of the following, which would require the greatest duration of time to show evidence of cell injury in association with sustained occlusion of an supplying artery?
Answer

brain

heart

epidermis

liver

kidney

epidermis.

Not brain, b/c brain would be one of the first to show evidence of cell injury b/c neurons are very susceptible to hypoxic cell injury.

18

Cloudy swelling, hydropic change and fatty change are all examples of
Answer

early neoplastic change

hyaline change

patterns of cell death

postmortem artefact

reversible cell injury

reversible cell injury

19

Fatty change is most commonly seen in the
Answer

heart

kidney

spleen

lung

liver

liver

20

In association with cell injury each of the following is characteristically decreased EXCEPT:
Answer

oxidative phosphorylation

ATP

pH

glycolysis

protein synthesis

glycolysis

21

The first point of attack of hypoxia inducing cell injury is:
Answer

the plasma membrane

oxidative phosphorylation by mitochondria

protein synthesis by rough endoplasmic reticulum

enzymes of the lysosomes

the genetic apparatus of the nucleus

oxidative phosphorylation by mitochondria

22

A myocardial infarct is a good example of
Answer

caseous necrosis

enzymatic fat necrosis

liquefactive necrosis

coagulative necrosis

gangrenous necrosis

coagulative necrosis

Liquefactive necrosis is always seen in brain and is seen elsewhere as abscesses

Caseous necrosis=TB and granulomas

23

Which of the following is the first sign of anoxic cell injury?
Answer

cell swelling

vacuolization

karyorrhexis

mitochondrial calcification

pyknosis


cell swelling

24

Accumulation of fat in the liver following administration of carbon tetrachloride results from
Answer

an increased uptake of blood triglycerides

a decrease in fatty acid oxidation

inhibition of lipoprotein synthesis

enhanced synthesis of free fatty acids

increased synthesis of glycerides

inhibition of lipoprotein synthesis

Carbon tetrachloride inhibits lipoprotein synthesis causing accumulation of fat in the liver. Need lipoproteins to carry lipids out, so without them, the lipids accumulate in the hepatocytes

25

Ultrastructural changes seen with reversible injury include each of the following EXCEPT:
Answer

myelin figures

blebs on the cell surface

blunting of the microvilli

swelling of the mitochondria

dense, calcium rich granules

dense, calcium rich granules
Signs of reversible cell injury are: Myelin figures, blebs on the cell surface, blunting of the microvilli, and swelling of the mitochondria.

26

In ischemic cell injury there is an
Answer

efflux of K+ and Na+

influx of K+ and Ca++

influx of K+ and H2O

influx of Na+ and Ca++

influx of Na+ and K+

influx of Na+ and Ca++

In ischemic cell injury there is an influx of Na+ and Ca2+

27

The most common cause of hypoxia associated with significant amount of cell injury is:
Answer

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

anemia

carbon monoxide poisoning

vascular occlusion

cardiorespiratory failure

vascular occlusion

28

Each of the following concerning increased activity of phosphofructokinase is TRUE, EXCEPT:
Answer

stimulated by an increase in ATP

results in a decrease in intracellular pH

associated with a decrease in intracellular glycogen

results in ATP generation from glycogen

indirectly associated with the early clumping of nuclear chromatin

stimulated by an increase in ATP

29

1.
Following a myocardial infarction, the increased level of the serum enzyme creatine kinase is due to
Answer

mitochondrial swelling

nuclear lysis

increased permeability of plasma membranes

increased endoplasmic reticulum

increased golgi activity

increased permeability of plasma membranes

30

A-
An-
ex. Agenesis

Without
agenesis= without beginning