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Ch. 17 The Peritoneal Cavity and Abdominal Wall > Fill in the Blanks > Flashcards

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1

Because of the _____________ ligament attachments, collections in the right posterior subphrenic space cannot extend between the bare area of the liver and the diaphragm.

Coronary

2

The pleural fluid tends to distribute ____________ in the chest.

posteromedially

3

Subcapsular liver and splenic collections are seen when they are ____________ to the diaphragm unilaterally and conform to the shape of an organ capsule.

inferior

4

A mass is confirmed to be within the retroperitoneal cavity when anterior renal displacement or anterior displacement of the dilated _______________ can be documented.

ureters

5

The mass interposed ______________ or superiorly to kidneys can be located either intraperitoneally or retroperitoneally.

anteriorly

6

Fatty and collagenous tissues in the perirenal or anterior pararenal space produce echoes that are best demonstrated on ____________ scans.

sagittal

7

Retroperitoneal lesions displace echoes ____________ and cranially.

ventrally

8

Hepatic and subhepatic lesions produce _____________ and posterior displacement.

inferior

9

A large, right-sided retroperitoneal mass rotates the intrahepatic portal veins to the ____________.

left

10

The peritoneal cavity is made up of multiple peritoneal ligaments and folds that connect the ___________ to each other and to the abdominopelvic __________.

viscera; walls

11

Within the cavity are found the lesser and greater ______________, the ____________ and multiple fluid spaces (lesser sac, perihepatic and subphrenic spaces).

omentum; mesenteries

12

The ____________ is a smooth membrane that lines the entire abdominal cavity and is reflected over the contained organs.

peritoneum

13

The part that lines the walls of the cavity is the ____________ peritoneum, whereas the part covering the abdominal organs to a greater or lesser extent is the ____________ peritoneum.

parietal; visceral

14

The general peritoneal cavity is known as the ___________ sac of the peritoneum.

greater

15

With the development of the stomach and the spleen, a smaller sac, called the _____________ sac (omental bursa), is the peritoneal recess posterior to the stomach.

lesser

16

This sac communicated with the greater sac through a small vertical opening known as the _____________ foramen.

epiploic

17

When the patient is lying supine, the lowest part of the body is the _____________.

pelvis

18

A double layer of the peritoneum extending from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach is known as the ____________ omentum.

lesser

19

The _________ omentum is an apron-like fold of peritoneum that hangs from the greater curvature of the stomach.

greater

20

Ligaments on the right side of the liver form the ____________ and _____________ spaces.

subphrenic; subhepatic

21

The subphrenic space is divided into right and left components by the _______________ ligaments.

falciform

22

The __________________ hepatis ascends from the umbilicus to the umbilical notch of the liver within the free margin of the falciform ligament before coursing within the liver.

ligamentum teres

23

The paired ___________ abdominis muscles are delineated medially in the midline of the body by the linea alba.

rectus

24

The amount of intraperitoneal fluid depends on the _____________, ________________, and the patient ______________.

location; volume; position

25

The ascitic fluid first fills the ______________, then the lateral paravesical recesses before it ascends to both paracolic gutters.

pouch of Douglas

26

The small bowel loops _____________ or _____________ in the surrounding ascitic fluid, depending on relative gas content and amount of fat in the mesentery.

floats; sinks

27

Inflammatory or malignant ascites appears with ________________ echoes; loculation; unusual distribution, matting or clumping of bowel loops; and thickening of interfaces between the fluid and neighboring structures.

fine or coarse internal

28

A cavity formed by necrosis within a solid tissue or a circumscribed collection of purulent material is a(n) ______________.

abscess

29

Name the five major pathways through which bacteria can enter the liver and cause abscess formation.

1. through the portal system
2. by way of ascending cholangitis of the common bile duct
3. via the hepatic artery secondary to bacteremia
4. by direct extension from an infection
5. by implantation of bacteria after trauma to the abdominal wall

30

Extrahepatic loculated collections of bile that may develop because of iatrogenic, traumatic, or spontaneous rupture of the biliary tree are _______________.

bilomas

31

An abscess that forms within the renal parenchyma is a(n) _______________. Clinical symptoms vary from none to fever, leukocytosis, and flank pain.

Renal carbuncle

32

The most common abdominal pathologic process is ____________, which requires immediate surgery.

acute appendicitis

33

A mass or lesion within the mesentery and omentum may have solid or cystic characteristics, whereas a mass within the peritoneum may show a(n) _________________ pattern.

infiltrative

34

Mesenteric and omental cysts may be uniloculated or _________________ with smooth walls and thin internal septations.

multiloculated

35

An incomplete regression of the urachus during development is a(n) ____________ cyst.

urachal

36

An encapsulated collection of urine, or ______________, may result from a closed renal injury, from surgical intervention, or it may arise spontaneously secondary to an obstructing lesion.

urinoma

37

The most common primary sites of peritoneal metastases are the ______________, ______________ and ______________.

ovaries; stomach; colon

38

The _______________ sign of lymphoma represents a mass infiltrating the mesenteric leaves and encasing the superior mesenteric artery.

sandwich

39

A key factor in determining if an abdominal wall mass is present is the ________________ of the rectus sheath muscles.

symmetry

40

A collection of fluid that occurs after surgery in the pelvis, retroperitoneum, or recess cavities is known as a(n) _____________.

lymphocele

41

Extraperitoneal rectus sheath ____________ are acute or chronic collections of blood lying either within the rectus muscle or between the muscle and its sheath.

hematomas

42

An abdominal __________ is the protrusion of a peritoneal-lined sac through a defect in the weakened abdominal wall.

hernia

43

A variant of the ventral hernia that is found more laterally in the abdominal wall is a(n) _____________ hernia.

spigelian

44

List the four sonographic criteria for a hernia.

1. demonstration of an abdominal wall defect
2. presence of bowel loops or mesenteric fat within a lesion
3. exaggeration of the lesion with strain (Valsalva)
4. reducibility of the lesion by gentle pressure