Flashcards in FINAL - 1) Understanding self and others Deck (71):
What is self?
cognitive representation of who and what we are
How do we test self-understanding in pre-verbal infants?
We can't test them using surveys, so we test them using self-recognition tests (present a mirror and see if they recognize that its them in the mirror)
Gallup originally invented the mark test to be used in non-human consciousness research. What is it?
-mark ape's cheek, they look in mirror and move hand up to mark, it recognizes itself
-all the great apes can pass this test by a certain age
The mark/rouge test is now used in human self-recognition research. Lewis and Brooks-Gunn used it in their experiment, what were their results?
-9-12 mos: don’t care
-15-17 mos: 20% care
-18-20 mos: 75% care (irritated by the mark, try to wipe it off)
-21-24 mos: 80%
-After 2 yrs: increases more and more
What happens when children are presented with a mirror that distorts their image?
-Children under 18 mos of age aren’t disturbed by them at all
-At 18 mos, they freak out (avoidance response- cry, refuse to look), they think their self has been violated- its not right, this isn’t what i'm supposed to look like
What are the five characteristics of self-understanding in early childhood (ages 2 to 6/7)?
3) Physical and Material
5) Unrealistically positive
The first characteristic of self-understanding in early childhood is activities-oriented. Give an example
-central component of self-hood in young kids
ex: I jump on my trampoline, I play with my blocks
The second characteristic of self-understanding in early childhood is concrete. Give an example
ex: “I know my ABCs, I have a red bike”
The third characteristic of self-understanding in early childhood is physical and material. Give an example
ex: how are you different from your friend Mary? She has brown hair, I have blond hair. I have a bike, she doesn’t
The fourth characteristic of self-understanding in early childhood is centered. Give an example
don’t understand that they can be two things at once (nice sometimes, not nice other times)
The fifth characteristic of self-understanding in early childhood is unrealistically positive. Give an example
-overestimations of their own skills and abilities
-actual vs. ideal selves
ex: “I know all my ABCs”, “I’m never scared”
What happens in the five characteristics when you shift to middle childhood?
-shift to internal characteristics: preferences, personality
-spontaneous use of social references (you might describe yourself as “muslim”, as “having two best friends”, I exist in reference to something else)
-more realistic: actual vs. ideal selves, social comparison
How do the five characteristics of self-understanding in early childhood tie to cognitive development?
Concrete and centered, nothing abstract -> preoperational stage
How do the five characteristics of self-understanding in middle childhood tie to cognitive development?
-concrete operations stage
• Shift to more abstract ideas
• Ability to handle more than one idea at once
What happens in the five characteristics when you shift to adolescence?
-increasingly abstract self-descriptions
-highly self-conscious (don’t actually have a solid integrated sense of self)
-increased ability to distinguish between actual and ideal selves (several ideal selves but never going to measure up to your ideal self, addition of “possible selves”)
-fluctuations in self-understanding (inconsistencies)
-eventual integration into whole concept of self (general theory of self survives inconsistencies, identity is formed)
How do the five characteristics of self-understanding in adolescence tie to cognitive development?
-formal operations stage
-abstract multivariant of self
-metacognitive abilities are allowing you to take a step back and look at yourself and understand the various things that are going on within yourself
What is self representation?
-Refers to an individual’s efforts to shape self image
-“process whereby one regulates his/her behaviour to manipulate the impression made on an audience” (Levine & Feldman)
What is allocentrism?
self in relation to the context or definition of others
Individuals who have autism spectrum disorder are allocentric. How so?
-"my behaviour in terms of what other people have told me"
-rigid, scriptive, detailed
-they may be able to be in a scenario and socialize but it takes time for them to be able to do it
-good with details but not good with social cues/emotions
-they have to learn, be told repeatedly how to understand emotions/social cues but they can do it (just need reminders)
The developmental course of both cognitive and social-cognitive development involve shifts in concrete to abstract, centered to decentered and egocentric viewpoint to general viewpoint. BUT PEOPLE ARE NOT OBJECTS, name the 3 basic differences between people and objects and explain them.
1) interactivity: people are animate
2) intentionality: why are they doing what they are doing
3) social scripts: as we develop, we begin to learn that certain ways to react to others is expected (ex: politeness script (Hi, how are you? Good, how are you?))
In terms of describing others, explain the three-step model experiment?
-asked kids (ages 6-16) to describe people they knew in their class
1) External features (up to ages 6-8)
-hair colour, height, what they wear
-rarely use internal characteristics, if they do its unsophisticated (ex: mean/nice)
-no sense of conservation of personality (ex: saying someone is nice one day but mean the next day)
2) Internal features (beginning ages 7-8)
-better sense of personality conservation (saying someone is still usually nice even if he pulls on your ponytail)
3) Qualifiers and inferences (beginning in teen years)
-full story: understand that situations act on people
What were the results of the three-step model for describing others?
1) at age 6, not making that many external feature descriptions but peaks at age 8 and declines from there
2) by age 9, more likely to make internal descriptions than external ones
3) at teen years, beginning to use qualifiers
Do our descriptions of others change as we age?
Children’s descriptions of others shift in the same way as do descriptions of themselves
How can we deduce others’ emotions? (3 things)
1) Theory of mind : others have their own experience of what’s going on around them, that is very different from yours
2) Body/facial signals: We learn to read/recognize what emotions looks like, body gestures/postures-> helps us understand what people are feeling at any given time
3) Understanding of social context: If you knew that they had 4 midterms in the next 2 days, you would understand their grumpiness
What is cognitive empathy?
understanding the causal basis for another’s feelings (understanding someone else’s feelings, acknowledgement of their emotional state)
What is affective empathy?
sharing and reflection of the other person’s feelings (most often distress)
(actively trying to take a part in understanding why they are feeling that way)
Paul Ekman (2007) has recently included two more types of empathy (on top of cognitive and affective empathy). Name them
emotional empathy and compassionate empathy
What is emotional empathy?
to feel alongside another person (as if they were your own feelings)
(ex: cry when someone else cries)
What is compassionate empathy?
(empathy in action) with this kind of empathy we not only understand a person’s predicament and feel with them, but are spontaneously moved to help (ex: start a fundraiser for the Paris shooting)
Peterson: Does theory of mind deficits impact their (ASD kids) ability to show empathy? Explain experiment and results
-Theory mind task: explain a story, ask questions about story (what happened? is this person thinking different from you?)
-With younger children (3-12 years old)- bring them in to experiment room with mom or dad and tell them to pretend they hurt themselves with a hammer, look at child’s reaction
Results (Tom & empathy): older typically developing (8-12) population were rated high, younger typically developing (6-8) population were rated lower, ASD (3-6) kids were rated lowest
-theory of mind (ToM) and empathy scores lowest for ASD kids
-ToM did NOT affect empathy scores
What is primitive embarrassment?
Occurs simply because an audience is present
What is mature embarrassment?
-Occurs with development of social perspective-taking skills
-The actor considers how the audience might interpret their behavior
Do individuals with ASD understand embarrassment?
-those with ASD might understand that its embarrassing to fall downstairs but not understand why its especially embarrassing to do it in front of an audience
What is the difference between conventional rules and moral rules? Give examples
-conventional rules: rule that have been created by cultures, its arbitrary (ex: put my hand up at school to ask question, no running in the halls at school - they understand that some of these rules don’t apply at home)
-moral rules: seen more as universal or obligatory, you have to follow them (ex: not hitting other people, don’t be bully)
Rules and Intentions: When do we understand how to judge others’ behaviours?
-by age 6/7/8, they understand conventional and moral rules and the difference between them
What is the difference between intentional and unintentional transgressions? Use examples
-intentional (ex: hit someone when you intend to)
-unintentional (ex: trip and fall and hit someone in the process - accident)
Do young kids understand the role of intent when assessing their own behaviour?
Do young kids understand the role of intent when assessing others' behaviour?
Rules and Intentions: Young kids assessing others' behaviour. Explain Nelson (1980) experiment and results
-exposed kids to stories w/pics in 4 different versions
One version: Sam and Tina in school yard, sam has a ball, sam is imagining that he is going to throw the ball at Tina and it hits Tina in the head, this action happens
-most adults would recognize that if Sam wants to hurt Tina, it doesn’t matter if he failed at hurting her, he is still not a good boy b/c he meant to hurt her just had bad aim
-if you hurt and didn’t intend to hurt, no one should think you’re bad
-ask Tina to rate Sam's goodness
Results: Sam is rated on (not good) 1-7 (good):
-no harm intended and Tina catches ball = 6
-harm intended but Tina catches ball= 3
-no harm intended but Tina gets hit = 4
-harm intended and Tina gets hit = 1
Can children with ASD understand intention?
"Strange stories" are used to test what?
theory of mind, understanding figures of speech, misunderstanding, persuasion, white lies, contrary emotions
“Strange Stories” (Happe, 1994), explain the experiment and results
-series of 24 short stories with ambiguous stories
-tell to typically developing kid and ASD kid
-control stories about physical events (ex: she was standing at her podium and giving a lecture on self understanding.. what was the lecture about?)
-Experimental stories about intention (Ex: how was she feeling about the presentation? Was she nervous? Was she trying to entertain you?)
-Results: ASD do better with control stories (facts)
-Adults with ASD perform worse than do 9 year old TD children
Summary of "Understanding Self and Others" lecture: social-cognitive development runs parallel with _____ development. Children’s understanding of self and others depends on their level of cognitive development in the following three areas:
-concreteness vs. abstraction, metacognitive skill, theory of mind
According to the textbook, what are basic emotions (3 elements)? Give an example for each element
1) a subjective feeling (ex: anger)
2) a physiological change (ex: heart beats faster)
3) an overt behaviour (ex: scowling)
According to one influential theory (Lewis, 2000), newborns experience only two general emotions, what are they? But by about __ or __ months of age, infants are thought to experience all basic emotions.
-pleasure and distress
-8 or 9
According to the textbook, an important change in emotions occurs at about 2 or 3 months of age, what is it?
social smiles first appear: infants smile when they see another person
According to the textbook, anger is one of the first negative emotions to emerge from generalized distress, and typically does so between ___ and ___ months.
4 and 6
According to the textbook, Like anger, fear emerges later in the first year. At about __ months of age, infants become wary in the presence of an unfamiliar adult, a reaction known as stranger _____ .
6 months, wariness
According to the textbook, in addition to basic emotions, people feel complex emotions such as pride, shame, guilt, and embarrassment. Sometimes these are collectively know as ___-____ emotions. These emotions do not surface until __ to ___ months of age because they depend on the child's having some understanding of the self, which typically occurs between ___ and ___ months.
self-conscious emotions, 18-24, 15-18
According to the textbook, infants can first identify others' emotions as early as __ months and definitely by __ months, infants begin to distinguish facial expressions associated with different emotions.
According to the textbook, what is social referencing? Infants begin to do this at how many months?
infants in an unfamiliar or ambiguous environment often look at their caregiver, as if searching for cues to help them interpret the situation
According to the textbook, as children develop, they also begin to learn display rules, what are they?
culturally specific standards for appropriate expressions of emotion in a particular setting or with a particular person or persons
According to the textbook, what is adolescent egocentrism?
-self-absorption that marks the teenage search for identify
-they know that others have different perspectives (unlike preschoolers) but at the same time, they strongly believe that they are the focus of others' thinking and attention
According to the textbook, many adolescents feel that they are, in effect, actors whose performance is being watched constantly by their peers, a phenomenon known as the ____ ______
According to the textbook, what is the personal fable?
teenager's tendency to believe that their experiences and feelings are unique, that no one has ever felt or thought as they do
According to the textbook, what is the illusion of invulnerability?
adolescent's belief that misfortune only happens to others (ex: have sex without getting pregnant)
According Marcia (1980,1991) in the textbook, most adolescents experience 4 phases/statuses in dealing with identity crisis' (in no specific sequence). What are the 4 phases? Explain them
1) diffusion: confused/overwhelmed by task of achieving identity and are doing little to achieve one
2) foreclosure: have an identity determined by adults, rather than from personal explorations of alternatives
3) moratorium: still examining different alternatives and have yet to find a satisfactory identity
4) achievement: explored alternatives and have deliberately chosen a specific identity
According to the textbook, list Selman's 5 stages of perspective taking, give approximate ages and explain each one
1) Undifferentiated (3-6): know that self and others can have different thoughts but confuse the two
2) social-informational (4-9): know that perspectives differ b/c ppl have access to different info
3) Self-reflective (7-12): can step into other's shoes and view themselves as others do
4) Third person (10-15): can step outside situation to see how they and another person are viewed by a third person
5) Societal (14+): realize that a third person's perspective is influenced by broader personal, social, and cultural contexts
According to the textbook, what is recursive thinking? What age does it emerge at?
"he thinks that she thinks.." reasoning
According to the textbook, as children grow, their catalogue of emotions continues to expand. In fact, by ____ years of age, children experience feelings of regret, but they are less likely to experience feelings of relief yet.
According to the textbook, children worldwide express many of the same basic and complex emotions. However, ___ differ in the extent to which emotional expression is encouraged.
a. cultures, b. emotions, c. children, d. adults
According to the textbook, when can infants first identify emotion in others?
Perhaps as early as four months of age and definitely by six months, infants begin to distinguish facial expression associated with different emotions.
According to the textbook, an infants use of parents cues is precise. If 2 unfamiliar toys are shown to a parent who expresses disgust at one toy but not the other, __ month olds will avoid the toy that elicited disgust but not the other toy. By ___ months old, infants remember this information; they avoid a toy that elicited disgust a few hours earlier. By __ months old, when one adult demonstrates an unfamiliar toy and a second adult comments in an angry tone ‘that’s annoying/irritating.’ they play less with the toy compared to when the second adult makes neutral remarks in a mild manner.
12, 14, 18
According to the textbook, during the elementary school years, children begin to comprehend that people sometimes experience ‘mixed feelings.’ What are 'mixed feelings'?
The increased ability to see multiple, differing emotions coincides with the freedom from the centered thinking that characterizes the concrete operational stage.
According to the textbook, emotion regulation begins in infancy by __ to ___ months? By __ mos, a distressed toddler’s face typically expresses sadness instead of fear or anger, apparently toddlers have learned that a sad facial expression is the best way to get a mother’s attention and support.
-Emotion regulation begins in infancy, by 4-6 mos, infants use simple strategies to regulate their emotions.
According to the textbook, self-awareness involve infants’ understanding of their own bodies. Infants learn this aspect of self-awareness by __ to ___ mos.
According to the textbook, for many adolescents growing up in North America today, achieving an identity is even more challenging because they are members of ethnic minority groups (18.5% of adolescents). Such individuals typically develop an ethnic identity, what is that? What are the 3 phases of the process?
-they feel a part of their ethnic group and learn the special customs and traditions of their group’s culture and heritage.
1) Initially adolescents have not examined their ethnic roots, ethnic identity is not an important personal issue.
2) Adolescents begin to explore the personal impact of their ethnic heritage. Curiosity and questioning are characteristic of this stage. Involves learning cultural traditions.
3) Individuals achieve a distinct ethnic self-concept.
According to the textbook, what is acculturation? Research in the USA has shown that when children have one European American parent and the other is a minority, children tend to adopt the which identity?
process of integrating into and adopting the customs of a different culture.
According to the textbook, depression is often triggered when adolescents experience a serious loss, disappointment or failure. Why do adolescents become more depressed than adults?
-temperament; children who are less able to regulate their emotions are, as adolescents, more prone to depression.
-a belief system in which adolescents see themselves in an extremely negative light.
-Parents and families can also put an adolescent at risk for depression.
-Heredity also plays a role
According to the textbook, by 4 or 5 years of age, which is the earliest we can measure self-esteem, children have a differentiated view of themselves. They can distinguish overall SE as well as SE in specific domains. In elementary school years, four specialized areas stand out, what are they?
1) Scholastic competence: how competent or smart the child feels in doing schoolwork.
2) Athletic competence: how competent the child feels at sports and games requiring physical skill or athletic ability.
3) Social competence: how competent the child feels in a relationship with parents and peers
4) Physical appearance: how good-looking the child feels and how much the child likes his or her physical characteristics.