Flashcards in FINAL - 4) Media and Development Deck (10):
What are some positive effects of TV?
-goal of Sesame street (Morisett 1966) is to prepare children (at risk – from impoverished families) for school
-helpful for school readiness (especially for low-income family children)
-researchers found that kids who regularly watch sesame street are more ready for school than kids who do not
-Significant, positive impact on cognitive and social-emotional development
-BUT, the more TV they watch, the less well they do in school, a little bit of TV is enough
What are some negative effects of TV?
-Prime time TV: 5 acts of violence per hour
-Saturday morning Cartoons: 20-25 acts of violence per hour
-Showing kids that violence is the answer to solving problems
immediate effects -> tells us little about development
longitudinal effects -> no random assignment therefore no causal statements (no control over study, not ethical)
Explain Bandura's Bobo doll experiments.
-expose children (ages 3-6) to a model who was being violent in his or her interactions with a bobo doll
-child watches model start playing with toys then start punching Bobo doll (gets very agressive)
Results: boys have significantly more imitative aggression when they see model rewarded for that aggression, girls show same pattern except that they are less aggressive overall than boys
- increase in aggression overall when they saw model being rewarded for being aggressive
Effect of Power Rangers on aggression in the playground
(Boyatzis et al., 1995). What were the results?
found that children regardless of gender who had seen power rangers engaged in 7 times more aggressive acts on the playground than did children who did not see the show
Effect of exposure to violent vs. family movies on aggression (Leyens et al., 1977). Explain the study, what did they find?
-before they started their study, they took a base line (BL) measure of how many aggressive acts they perform usually, exposed them to family movies every single night for a week or 2 and they counted the amount of aggressive acts they did during that time
-other group of boys watched violent movies
-family movies don’t do anything
-violent movies increase boys aggression
Longitudinal effects of TV, explain Eron (1987)'s study on the preference for violent TV at a younger age progressing to a criminal record and aggressiveness later in life.
-found that people TV viewing preferences at age 8 predicted their later aggressiveness and criminal acts at age 30
-low preference for violence TV at age 8: 10-15% with record
-medium preference for violence TV at age 8: 30-35%
-high preference for violence TV at age 8: 50%
-correlations! NOT A CAUSATION
-Found that the best predictor of being aggressive later on in life was not whether you were aggressive at age 8 but it was of whether you liked aggressive TV at this age and how much violent tv you watched at a kid
What are some possible mechanisms for agression?
-parenting: Do parents reinforce or counteract the aggression seen on TV?
-Vicarious reinforcement of aggressive responding: internalization of idea that aggression solves problems
-weakened inhibitions against aggressive behaviour: cognitive readiness to aggress, first likely response when frustrated
-Emotional desensitization to violence
-lack of exposure to prosocial behaviour
What do video games cause?
-75% involve violence
-increase in aggression
-increase in anxiety
-decreased ability to tolerate frustration
According to the textbook, in a classic early study, Parten identified a developmental sequence of peer interactions that began with nonsocial play. What is this?
-children playing alone or watching others play but not playing with them. Later children progressed to more elaborate forms of play, with each child having a well-defined role.