Flashcards in Week 5- Piaget and stage 1 Deck (40):
What type of theorist was Piaget?
Explain the constructivist theory.
-children have experiences in the world and are deeply motivated to understand the world around them (construct knowledge to do that)
-their answers are going to be very wrong sometimes
-view that children are active participants in their own development who systematically construct ever more sophisticated understandings of their worlds
Explain the maturationist theory.
-children will develop new ways of thinking when the system allows us to do this
-they have certain things we have to go through in order to get to an adult style of thinking
-Nothing can change the order or the time it happens
What is cognitive equilibrium?
-balance between what the child knows and what the child is experiencing, if there is a balance then they are in cognitive equilibrium
What is cognitive disequilibrium?
-discomfort is caused by cognitive disequilibrium
-when they’re not sure what something is, get confused
What is the goal of intelligence?
Kids construct their own knowledge BUT within ____?
the confines of what they already know
Is cognitive development perfect? Why or why not?
No, it involves learning and fixing mistakes along the way and they will eventually figure out right answers at the right time when they are prepared mentally to understand those answers
What are schemes? Give an example.
theories/ideas of how things in the world around us work
ex: sucking scheme for an infant
What is the sum total of all our schemes?
______ develops through the refinement of schemes.
How do kids construct and modify their schemes?
Adaptation & Organization
What are the two processes of adaptation?
Assimilation & accommodation
There are two processes of adaptation, explain the first one, assimilation, and give an example.
-Process by which children try to interpret new experiences by incorporating them into existing schemes
-Ex: dogs are the only 4 legged creature you’ve ever seen, one day you see a horse.. you may want to assimilate this into your dog scheme but you’ll be wrong
There are two processes of adaptation, explain the second one, accommodation, and give an example.
-Accommodate to new information
-Ex: modify existing structure (dog scheme) to account for new information (horse characteristics)
Explain the process of the infant schema "banging" example.
-Banging is a favourite scheme used by babies to explore their world (toy)
-And assimilation occurs when they incorporate new objects into the scheme (block)
-Accommodation occurs when the new object doesn’t fit the existing scheme (egg) -> can bang this thing but not that thing
Adaptation to a new object (know one type of cat, see new breed). When assimilation works. Give order of process:
-Equilibrium (know/seen only one type of cat)
-Disequilibrium: You see a different breed of cat
-Assimilation (still a cat)
Adaptation to a New Object (know fish, first time seeing a dolphin): When assimilation doesn’t work. Give order of process:
-Equilibrium (pet fish, only know this type)
-Disequilibrium: Go to the zoo, see a dolphin
-Assimilation (still a fish)
-Then, you meet the dolphin (doing tricks and you can interact with it and its breathing outside water) but you know that your fish can’t do all that .. something weird going on (Disequilibrium)
-Adult says “it’s a dolphin” and explain what it is
->Accommodation : create new category
-Organization: organize your info to reflect new info
In terms of the organization part of the adaptation of a new object using accommodation in the dolphin example, where is the dolphin classified?
-things that live in water originally only included fish but now also includes dolphins as well
-possible future organization: fish branching off, dolphin branching off
Assimilation is just different things within the_____, accommodation is creating different _____ within the scheme
What are the four stages of Piaget's theory of cognitive development?
1) Sensorimotor (0-2)
2) Preoperational (2-7)
3) Concrete operations (7-11)
4) Formal Operations (11+)
List some characteristics of a stage theory?
-discontinuous, qualitative change, universal
- Invariant order across different cultures
-designed for an educated culture but has been tested on other cultures
-something could be speeded up and some things could be slowed down but the sequence stays the same
-ages are approximate
-certain experiences required for unfolding of cognitive skills
How did Piaget study infant intelligence? (methods)
-longitudinal, naturalistic observation (studied his own kids), experimental manipulation
What were some problems with Piaget's research methods? (despite these problems, its all been replicated with random assignment)
-small sample size (all his kids so all related)
-genetic similarity (dad is a genius)
The 6 substages of stage 1 describes how infants go from being “______” to “______” thinkers
reflexive, reflective (symbolic processing)
Stage 1: Sensorimotor. What is substage 1 and when does it occur?
Reflex activity (0-1 month):
-What is the first thing a newborn baby will do that demonstrates some sort of ability that adapts to the world?
-“Mindless” exercising of reflexes
-rooting reflex associated with touching a baby’s cheek, they’ll try to suck on it
-their rooting reflex isn’t as good as its going to become (breastfeeding not always so good at first)
Stage 1: Sensorimotor. What is substage 2 and when does it occur?
Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 month):
-by accident you discover this thing that feels good on your body and now you’re going to work on replicating it
-ex: sucking thumb will happen the first time by accident and learns that they like it but then it falls out and they try to figure out how to put it back in their mouth over time
-primary (first thing they do), circular (going to do it again and again)
Stage 1: Sensorimotor. What is substage 3 and when does it occur?
Secondary circular reactions (4-8 months):
-you have discovered that you can make some sort of object outside your body do something
-Replicating interesting object-related events
-Ex: rubber duck, grasp it too hard by accident and it goes “quack” and you’ll do it again and then you’ll learn that grasping it = noise
Stage 1: Sensorimotor. What is substage 4 and when does it occur?
Coordination of Secondary Schemes (8-12 months):
-you’re doing the one action because it will get you to your end goal which is what you’ll enjoy
-ex: grasping itself doesn’t do anything but grasping will get you the toy that you want (goal)
-combine existing schemes to achieve goals
-babies will start to use various different schemes to understand world around them
Stage 1: Sensorimotor. What is substage 5 and when does it occur?
Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months):
-re-create interesting events in new ways
-ex: quacking duck quacks when I squeeze but are there other ways I can make it quack? Try some things that don’t work (drop it, suck it, throw it etc…)
-circular b/c: ex drop it, parent gives duck back, drop it, parent gives it back, drop it etc..
-trial and error exploratory schemes
Stage 1: Sensorimotor. What is substage 6 and when does it occur?
symbolic problem solving (18-24 months):
-schemes “go mental” -> no more trial and error
-Piaget daughter: Jacqueline at 20 months- arrives at closed door and has grass in her hands, puts grass on floor and opens door then picks up grass again. But on her way out, she imagined that if she puts the grass down then it’ll get crinkled by the door
The capstone accomplishment in the sensorimotor stage is the beginning of symbolic thought. What are 2 skills that reflect this accomplishment?
deferred imitation & object permanence
What is the difference between plain old imitation and deferred imitation?
imitation: imitating someone as they're doing something (no symbolic thought)
deferred imitation: seeing a behaviour before and remembering it and then imitating it again another time
What is object permanence? Use an example to explain.
-knowing something still exists even though you can't see/feel/hear/smell it
-ex: taking candy from a baby (if they do NOT have OP, they won't care
-ex: putting a toy under a blanket, child goes to find it (they have OP)
Development in terms of Object permanence: substage 1-2?
-No object permanence: babies don’t seem to think an object exists if you show it then hide it
Development in terms of Object permanence: substage 3?
-little bit of object permanence
-they will only search for partly hidden object (will not search for it if its fully hidden)
Development in terms of Object permanence: substage 4?
-Almost full object permanence
-Practice: hide it in location A, they find it, hide it in location A, they find it but when you hide it in location B, they look in location A still
Development in terms of Object permanence: substage 5?
-no more A-not-B errors
-object permanence in the sense that he can now understand that the object can exist where the other person that last touched it left it
Development in terms of Object permanence: substage 5? Piaget not satisfied with visible displacement so he tried invisible displacement test. Explain what he did and what happened.
-Take an object and hide it in his fist and past his fist behind 3 different things (stuffed animal, screen, etc…) and he brings back out fist and asks where is toy? Kid will open his hand but there will be nothing there and it doesn’t occur to the kid that it could be behind screen or whatever