Flashcards in Week 9- Intelligence Deck (17):
What is crystallized intelligence?
ability to use skills, knowledge and experience (it does not equate to memory but uses it), knowledge that we get overtime
What is fluid intelligence?
how you deal with novel situations, how quickly you can process new information, does not depend on book-learning, its necessary for all logical problem-solving
How is intelligence measured?
Binet test, Modern test
Explain the Binet intelligence test.
-interested in identifying which elementary school students were in need of extra help
-Series of increasingly difficult tasks (everyday problems and basic reasoning problems)
-trying to measure something close to fluid intelligence
-Mental age vs. chronological age
-chronological age minus mental age
->Negative number or 0 = they’re fine
->Positive number: flagged for help
Modern intelligence testing: Explain the Standford-Binet test
-intelligence quotient: ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100
->If 100 or higher = you’re fine
->If under 100 = need help
-Verbal (basically crystallized intelligence) and non-verbal (fluid intelligence) components
-Examples verbal (5 subtests): Vocab, verbal concept formation, verbally reason, influence by information you have picked up on
-Examples non-verbal (10 subtests): Perceptual reasoning (ex: picture completion), processing speed (ex: get a code, fill in code for other set), working memory (ex: digit span task)
We expect about __ % of people to have normal intelligence. (100, plus or mins 15)
Are IQ tests reliable and valid?
-test-retest reliability r’s = .65 to .80 (indicating very little movement in basic IQ overtime)
-stability increases with increasing age
-but: large fluctuations do happen (special advantage/disadvantage in life)
ex: New Zealand Longitudinal Study: measured their IQ from age 7-17 every 2 years and found that it was similar but in about 10% of the population, the IQ score would change about 15 points and in 13% of the sample, there could be major changes over longer periods like 4 years
Is intelligence inheritable?
-huge political/economic debate in the U.S.: Should we have a program to help them reach their full potential?
-if IQ is fully heritable, then social programs not needed
-if IQ depends on experience, then social programs must be instituted (i.e., paid for!)
What is the psychometric theory of intelligence?
a hierarchy of general and specific skills
Data supporting heritability of intelligence: Bouchard, explain the Minnesota Twin Study:
-MZT, MZA, DZT and DZA, siblings, adopting siblings
-no significant difference between MZT and MZA
-MZT > MZA > DZT > S > AS
Data supporting effects of environmental factors on intelligence: Bouchard, explain his study about adopted kids.
-intelligence was more similar in kids and their adoptive parents than kids and their biological parents
Effect of Genes Increases with ___
What are the nine intelligences in Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?
linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic, existential
What is emotional intelligence?
ability to use one's own and others' emotions effectively for solving problems and living happily
What is Steinberg's theory of successful intelligence?
use of analytic, creative, and practical abilities to pursue personal goals
What are culture-fair intelligence tests?
test items based on experiences common to many cultures