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Flashcards in Final Deck (47)
1

Habitual in the present

si + present indicative + present indicative

Si tiene tiempo, va a las montañas-If he has time, he goes to the mountains

sounds like present indicative

2

Possible in the present

si+present indicative + future

Si tiene tiempo, irá a las montañas-If he has time, will go to the mountains.

sounds like future

3

Contrary-to-Fact

si + PAST subjunctive + conditional

Si tuviera tiempo, iría a las montañas-If he had time, he would go to the mountains.

sounds like conditional

4

Habitual/Possible in the past

si + imperfect indicative + imperfect indicative

Si tenía tiempo, iba a las montañas.-When he had time, he used to go to the mountains.

sounds like imperfect indicative

5

Si llueve, no trabajamos

If it rains, we don't work.

6

Si tengo tiempo, yo lo haré

If I have time, I will do it.

7

Si estudias, serás inteligente

If you study, you will be smart.

8

Irregular Conditional and Furture stems

decir (to say/tell):

dir-

9

Conditional

Whole infinitive + a conditional ending, excpet for the 10 irregular verbs.

-ía
-ías
-ía
-íamos
-íais
-ían

10

Future

Whole infinitive + a future ending, excpet for the 10 irregular verbs


-ás

-emos
-éis
-án

11

Past Subjunctive

Take the UDS form of the preterite, drop the "ON", add appropriate ending.

NOTE: the last vowel in the newly formed stem is accented in the nosotros form. NO ACCENTS on the other forms.

-a
-as
-a
-amos
-ais
-an

12

Things that trigger subjunctive

Influence
Doubt
Denial
Emotion
"Si" clause if combined with a conditional clause

13

Negative Tú Commands

No + YO verb form, replace "a" with "e" and replace "e" or "i" with "a"

-AR Verbs
No hables-Don't speak
No cantes-Don't sing
No juegues-Don't play

-ER/IR Verbs
No comas-Don't eat
No escribas-Don't write
No pidas-Don't order/ask

14

Affirmative Tú Commands

Same form as the Singular 3rd Person, except the 8 irregulars

-AR
Habla-Speak
Canta-Sing
Juega-Play

-ER/-IR
Come-Eat
Escribe-Write
Pide-Order/Ask

15

Irregular Affirmative Tú Verbs

decir-di
hacer-haz
ir-ve
poner-pon
salir-sal
ser-sé
tener-ten
venir-ven

16

Pronouns for Commands

Affirmative-attached
Negative-not attached
The personal pronoun comes first, then the direct object pronoun.


Dile-Tell him
Léela-Read it
Póntelos-Put them on
No le digas-Do not tell him
No la lee


UD.

17

Past Participle

-AR
Hablar->Hablado-spoken

-ER/-IR
Comer->Comido-eaten
Vivir->Vivido-lived

NOTE: Accent is added to the "i" if the stem of the -ER/-IR ends in "a", "e", "o"

Caer->Caído-fallen
Creer->Creído-thought
Leer->Leído-read
Oír->Oído-heard
(Son)reír->(Son)reído
Traer->Traído-tried

NOTE: As an adjective the past participle reflects the noun it's modifying.

18

Irregular Past Participles

Abrir

Abierto-opened

19

Present Perfect Indicative

Haber + past participle

He hablado-I have spoken
Has hablado-You have spoken
Ha hablado-You have spoken/He/She has spoken
Hemos hablado-We have spoken
Habéis hablado-You have spoken
Han Hablado-You/they have spoken

NOTE: NEVER change the "o" at the end to an "a"

20

Present Perfect Subjunctive

Same as Indicative, except that Haber changes to the subjunctive form.

Haya hablado
Hayas hablado
Haya hablado
Hayamos hablado
Hayáis hablado
Hayan hablado

21

mine

mío/mía/míos/mías

22

yours (informal, singular)

tuyo/tuya/tuyos/tuyas

23

yours/his/hers (formal)

suyo/suya/suyos/suyas

24

ours

nuestro/nuestra/nuestros/nuestras

25

yours (informal, plural)

vuestro/vuestra/vuestros/vuestras

26

Antecedents

antes (de) que
cuando
después (de) que
en cuanto
hasta que
tan pronto como

27

Ant. Rules

conj. of time + still pending action-subjunctive
pres. indic. OR future + pending action-subj.
conj. of time + habitual action OR completed past action-present indicative
antes (de) que-ALWAYS SUBJUNCTIVE

28

Ojalá

HOPE--PRESENT subjunctive
WISH--PAST subjunctive

Hope
Ojalá que saque buena nota en este curso-I hope I get a good grade in this course.

Wish
Ojalá que pudiera ir a la playa este fin de semana-I wish we could go to the beach this weekend.

29

Irregular Conditional and Furture stems

haber (to have):

habr-

30

Irregular Conditional and Furture stems

hacer (to do/make):

har-

31

Irregular Conditional and Furture stems

poder (to be able [to do something]):

podr-

32

Irregular Conditional and Furture stems

poner (to put on):

pondr-

33

Irregular Conditional and Furture stems

querer (to want/wish/love):

querr-

34

Irregular Conditional and Furture stems

saber (to know [how to do something]):

sabr-

35

Irregular Conditional and Furture stems

salir (to leave/to go out):

saldr-

36

Irregular Conditional and Furture stems

tener (to have):

tendr-

37

Irregular Conditional and Furture stems

venir (to come):

vendr-

38

Irregular Past Participles

Cubrir

Cubierto-

39

Irregular Past Participles

Decir

Dicho-said

40

Irregular Past Participles

Descubrir

Descubierto-discovered

41

Irregular Past Participles

Escribir

Escribierto-wrote

42

Irregular Past Participles

Hacer

Hecho-done/made

43

Irregular Past Participles

Morir

Muerto-died

44

Irregular Past Participles

Resolver

Resuelto-resolved

45

Irregular Past Participles

Romper

Roto-broken

46

Irregular Past Participles

Ver

Visto-saw

47

Irregular Past Participles

Volver

Vuelto-returned