Final Exam: Chapter 18 Evolutionary Medicine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam: Chapter 18 Evolutionary Medicine Deck (59):

What is myopia?



What are the possible causes of breast cancer?

? Environmental mutations of oncogenes; more likely in tissues that routinely undergo cell division such as skin, colon, lung, breast, prostate, and bone marrow cells because the tissues require some degree of continuous cell division to function. Increased rates of cell proliferation bring with them greater vulnerability to mutagenic effects of environmental toxins or radiation.


How might menstrual cycles influence breast cancer?

? Tissues require some degree of continuous cell division to function; increased rates of cell proliferation bring with them greater vulnerability to mutagenic effects


What does it mean to treat a symptom but not an adaptation (within reason)?

Adaptations such as vomiting, sneezing, diarrhea, coughing, morning sickness, anemia, & fever is our bodies way of getting rid of whatever is bad - ex. morning sickness - bodies way of protecting embryo, anemia - could be anemic b/c body is keeping iron stored so bacteria cant use it to grow.


What is the possible adaptation of fever and other non-human animals?

Raise temp in order to kill off bacteria/viruses; non human animals such as a lizard will go sit in the sun in order to raise body temp because they cannot have a fever


What is the relationship between fever and chicken pox and fever and the common cold?

??? high temp when you have the chicken pox


What is the relationship between fever and sepsis?

? - no idea ... help :(


What is the relationship between parenthood (step vs biological), childrens health and child abuse?

Fathers interact more with their genetic offspring than their step-children. Fathers are more punishing (agonistic) towards step children than genetic off spring.\
Study done in Trinidad by Mark Flinn


What are the biological explanations for observed differences in the relationship between step vs biological parents and childrens health and child abuse?

Genes are not being passed on


What is combination drug therapy?

The use of multiple drugs to treat an illness in an effort to reduce drug resistance since a pathogen or tumor is less likely to have resistance to multiple drugs simultaneously


What is viral reassortment?

Occurs when genetic material from different strains gets mixed into new combinations within a single individual


What is host shifting?

When pathogens make the leap from one host species to another (ex. bird flu to human flu)


What is the evolutionary history of the SARS virus?

Closely related to pathogens called coronaviruses; closely related virus in cat-like mammals called palm civets (sold in china for meat); but the MAIN host for the viruses come from a large evolutionary tree of coronaviruses that infect chinese bats. bats-->other animals-->humans


What is particularly interesting about the polio vaccine?

Scientists mix viruses with the cells of monkeys or chimpanzees; viruses mutate and selection favors the strains best adapted to nonhuman hosts; while at the same time become less suited to infecting humans-once weak enough they can be injected into humans to get a strong immune response w/o making people sick


What are proto-oncogenes?

Ensure that cells divide only when they need to and stop dividing when they shouldn't; they are normal genes which, when altered by mutation, becomes an oncogene that can contribute to cancer.


What are oncogenes?

Mutated versions of proto-oncogenes; increased expression can lead to cancer


What is the hygiene hypothesis?

A hypothesis the proposes that a lack of early childhood exposure to infectious agents, symbiotic microorganisms (e.g., gut flora or probiotics), and parasites increases a person's susceptibility to allergic and autoimmune diseases


What is the thrifty genotype hypothesis?

A hypothesis that proposes that alleles that were advantageous in the past (e.g. because they were "thrifty" and stored nutrients well) may have become detrimental in the modern world, contributing to metabolic syndrome, obesity, and type 2 diabetes


What is the thrifty phenotype hypothesis?

A hypothesis that proposes that the conditions a fetus experiences during pregnancy can affect physiology throughout an individual's life. Type 2 diabetes may be the result of a "starvation physiology" resulting from exposure to nutrient-poor conditions during development coupled with a "westernized" lifestyle that is nutrient rich and low in exercise.


What is the thrifty epigenotype hypothesis?

A hypothesis that proposes that epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for coupling fetal nutritional conditions with the establishment of a particular physiology (e.g., a "starvation physiology") that persists for life and can be at least partially inherited by offspring


What are the four primary questions asked by researchers in evolutionary medicine?
*Be able to recognize these questions*

1.) How does our evolutionary legacy influence present day health problems?
2.) How do medications shape the evolution of pathogen resistance?
3.) Are our conditions symptoms or adaptations?
4.) How do the ecological phenomena of corridors and barriers shape evolution of virulence?


Why are humans so freaking lazy (explained from an evolutionary point of view)?

Our ancestors struggled to find enough food each day, their calories were precious and hard to come by. They would eat brains for fat and cholesterol and long bones (bone marrow). We don't have to worry about saving energy as much now.


What are autoimmune diseases?

Immune system attacks itself. (It gets bored when it has nothing to do)


What is germ theory?

Discovery in the late 19th century that some infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms, small organisms too small to see without magnification, that invade the host.


What is the anatomy of the Influenza A virus that makes it problematic?

Two major surface proteins: hemagglutinin and neuramnidase.
8 RNA's on the inside


What are antigenic sites and where are they found?

Antigenic sites are the specific parts of a foreign protein that the immune system recognizes and remembers.


How can host manipulation function as a corridor?

The host can use medicine to keep their body temperature down or to relieve symptoms. This allows the infection to keep growing and reproducing.


What is rabies and how does it spread?

A contagious and fatal viral disease of dogs and other mammals that causes madness and convulsions, transmissible through the saliva to humans.

Transmissible between species and usually transmits through a bite.


What is the relationship between flu, humans, pigs, and birds especially ducks?

Flu strains infect humans, pigs, and birds.
Human flu can infect pigs, bird flu can infect pigs, pig flu can infect people


What is the relationship between war and epidemics?

Trenches of WWI were perfect environments for epidemics. High density of people, high stress and unsanitary conditions to create viruses that are able to spread rapidly. No barriers and tons of corridors!


What is hemaglutinin and what is neuraminidase?

Hemagglutinin -Predominant coat protein on influenza A.
Primary protein recognized, attacked, and remembered by the host's immune system.

neuraminidase -mushroom-shape projection on the surface of the influenza virus


What does H1N1 mean?

Hemagglutinin-1, Neuraminidase-1
The number refers to groups of hemagglutinins or neuraminidases, defined by the ability of host antibodies to recognize them.
All H1's are more closely related to each other than to any H2, or H3, or H4. Same for neuraminidases.


What are the competing hypotheses for how the Spanish flu got started?

Theory 1: hospital camp in Kansas was at the center of the 1918 flu pandemic. A significant precursor virus was harbored in birds, and mutated to pigs that were kept near the front.
Theory 2: come from China, mutated in the United States near Boston, and spread to Brest, Brittany-France, Europe's battlefields, Europe, and the world using Allied soldiers and sailors as main spreaders.
Theory 3 (Ewald's): China → WW1 Battlefields trenches → all over the world


Why are corridors and barriers important to your health?

barriers protect you from pathogens and getting sick, such as sanitation and flu shots.
Corridors make it easier for you to become infected, and spread disease to other people


What species are the main carriers of the flu virus?

Avian, swine, and human


What are antibiotics and how do they influence the evolution of bacterial resistance?

Chemicals that kill bacteria by disrupting particular biochemical processes. They are powerful agents of selection for bacteria. If antibiotics are used excessively, then they will become rapidly ineffective against resistant bacteria. Which means more antibiotics will have to be invented to fight the resistant bacteria


What are the best defenses against antibiotic resistance?

Finishing prescriptions, less use of antibiotics, and alternating antibiotic types


Define virulence

Harm done by a pathogen to the host during the course of an infection


What are the hypotheses that consider the evolution of virulence?

1. Coincidental evolution hypothesis: tetanus in a human wound
2. Short-sighted evolution hypothesis: Polio virus invades human host rises to high frequency, but doesn't transmit to other hosts easily.
3. Trade-off hypothesis: Pathogens have higher reproductive success when they are deadly to their hosts


What did our hunter-gatherer ancestors eat and how does this differ from today’s U.S. diet?

Ancestors ate lean meat - poor in fat
Today we eat diets high in fat (sadly)
*We have genes that cause us to crave fat due to our ancestors' need to search for fat in their diets (usually ate brains, fat from bone marrow, etc.)


Autoimmune diseases were rarer in our ancestors. Why do we struggle with it so much?

We have 100s of autoimmune diseases that we have to deal with today. Our diet? Less parasites to keep our body busy? Vaccinations?


What are your odds of becoming infected with a strain of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a hospital stay? Why?

In the US alone, this currently causes about _____ deaths per year

1 in 10
Drug-resistance has become endemic in today's hospitals, despite the best efforts of the medical profession


In the last 30 years, the use of penicillin-type drugs in farm animals has increased by _____% and of tetracyclines by _____%

600%; 1500%


The main use of antibiotics in farming is for _____ and _____. _____ and _____ as well.

Pigs and chickens
Turkeys and cattle as well


_____ prescriptions of antibiotics are given out annually in the US



_____% of antibiotics are given for viral infections



_____% of antibiotics are given for mild infections that don't really need drugs



The vast majority of antibiotics produced go into ____

Livestock feeds


No new classes of antibiotics have been developed in many, many years.

Just thought we should know this :) Give it a 5 and move on!


If 1 in 100 mil bacteria are resistant to drug X and 1 in 100 mil are resistant to drug Y, then _____ will be resistant to both drugs combined

1 in 10,000 trillion


What is a cytokine storm?

Healthy immune system overreacts to a novel, deadly pathogen and sends too many immune cells to certain parts of the body


Cytokine storms occur in response to _____, _____, _____, _____, and _____.

Small pox, avian flu, SIRS, SARS and sepsis


If cytokine storms occur in the lungs, the individual often...

Dies :(


The best defense against antibiotic resistance is to

Avoid letting bacteria evolve resistance


Avoid contracting _____ bacteria



Use _____ and _____ sparingly.

Anti-bacterial soaps and cleaners


If you have a _____, don't ask for antibiotics

Viral infection


4 things doctors should do to defend against antibiotic resistance

1. Wash hands between patients
2. Never prescribe unneeded antibiotics
3. Prescribe antibiotics that target specific bacteria
4. Isolate patients infected with bacterial resistance to many drugs


What's Ewalds hypothesis for origin and spread of the spanish flu?

China --> WWI Battlefield trenches --> World