Flashcards in Final Exam Review- Viruses Deck (51):
Naked DNA Viruses
Woman should be naked for PAP smear.
Positive sense RNA viruses
Call Pico and Flavaflav, theres a retro toga party with coronas.
Isocahedral RNA viruses and coating
Damn right flava flav in a toga, parties around the clock.
Deltaviridae, retroviridae, flaviviridae, togaviridae - ENVELOPED
PicoRNAvirus, Reoviridae, Caliciviridae -- NAKED
Shape of most RNA viruses
PicoRNAviruses- characteristics and members
PERCH on a peak(pico). Single stranded, positive sense, naked.
Paramyxoviruses and their characteristics
Parainfluenza, RSV, Metapneumovirus, Rubeola (Measles), Mumps.
Single stranded negative RNA viruses.
Parainfluenza key points
Croup in toddlers in spring/fall.
RSV key points
Bronchiolitis in toddlers in winter.
More common in immunosuppressed and preterm birth. Give ribavirin.
Antiviral for RSV, nucleoside analog prevents transcription of viral RNA.
Human metapneumovirus key points
Causes common colds and URIs. At risk groups are immunodeficient and preterm birth. Give palivizumab for immunocompromised patients.
Monoclonal antibody against fusion protein. Treats RSV.
Coronavirus characteristics and key points
Positive sense ssRNA virus, enveloped. Causes SARS, MERS, common colds and gastroenteritis.
Adenovirus characteristics and key points
dsDNA virus, causes wide variety of clinical symptoms based on tropism, can cause conjunctivitis and URIs. Infants and immunocompromised are at risk for encephalitis and meningitis. Use cidofovir.
Cytosine analog, prevents viral DNA synthesis. Use for adenovirus with immunocompromised and infant patients to prevent encephalitis/meningitis. NEPHROTOXIC, IV admin
Influenza characteristics and key points
Negative sense RNA, helical, enveloped. HA, NA, M proteins, replicates in nucleus (like HIV). Genetic drift - escape from antibody recognition, causes reinfection. Genetic shift- from animals to humans. Lots of mutations because PB complex is error prone. Causes Fever cough and malaise. Treat with oseltamivir/zanamivir, not rimantadine/amantadine.
Sialic acid analog, inhibits action of NA, prevents virus from leaving cell.
PicoRNAvirus characteristics and key points
Positive sense ss RNA, naked, icosahedral. Occur in summer/fall, VP1 contains receptor binding sites hidden from antibodies. Transmission is fecal-oral or by contact. Initial infection prevented by SIgA, viremia prevented by IgG. Can cause paralysis or meningitis.
PicoRNAvirus: positive sense, ssRNA, naked, icosahedral. Causes paralytic injury but sensory intact. 90% asymptomatic. Vaccines exist.
Characteristics of viral meningitis
Elevated WBC in CSF (not as high as bacterial), predominance of lymphocytes, normal glucose/protein (2/3?).
Rubeola characteristics and key points
Paramyxovirus, morbillivirus. Single stranded negative sense, enveloped. Internalization into macrophages via CD46, SLAM, Nectin 4 and formation of syncytia in tissues after viremia. Causes maculopapular rash, Koplik's Spots, Very rare: SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis), and rare: ADEM (acute disseminating encephalomyelitis).
Mumps characteristics and key points
Paramyxovirus: rubulavirus. -ssRNA, enveloped. Causes swelling of salivary glands, can cause meningitis.
Rubella characteristics and key points
Togavirus: +ssRNA, icosahedral, enveloped. German measles, congenital rubella syndrome (deafness/cataracts).
Rotavirus characteristics and key features
Non enveloped dsRNA, icosahedral (reovirus). Common cause of viral diarrhea in children. NSP4 is suspected toxin. Look for VP6 in ELISA. Other VPs are targets of sIgA.
Norovirus characteristics and key features
Calicivirus (ss positive RNA, icosahedral, naked). Cruise ship gastroenteritis, worse in children. Secretor negative.
HSV I and II
Large dsDNA viruses, cause oral and genital warts. Causes formation of syncytia (Tzanck test). Can also cause encephalitis and neonatal infections. treat with acyclovir and valacylovir. Foscarnet if resistant. Latency in sensory ganglia
Large dsDNA virus. Causes chicken pox, latency in DRG/sensory ganglia. Can cause shingles. Reactivation by immunosuppression/uv light.
Live attenuated vaccines
Causes mononucleosis syndrome (hepatosplenomegaly, rash). Latent in B cells, can immortalize them and cause lymphoma. Also causes atypical lymphocytes. Monospot test (weird IgMs from infected B cells). Supportive therapy but rituximab for EBV cancers
Causes mononucleosis-like syndrome but much milder. Leading cause of congenital deafness and other issues. Affects aids patients. Treat with gancicyclovir and valgancicyclovir.
HHV 6 and 7
Roseola, high fever then rash.
Causes KS in AIDS, tumors in vasculature.
Therapy for EBV cancers?
Treatment for CMV
Gancicyclovir and valgancicyclovir
What to do if acyclovir resistant?
HepaDNAvirus, needs RT to function. Vertical transmission, tattoos, blood transfusions. Can be acute (with anti HBs antibody) or chronic (anti HBsAB lost, HBsAg persists) causes jaundice, RUQ pain, vomiting, etc. Also can cause hepatocellular carcinoma. Treat with pegylated interferon alpha and NRTIs (tenofovir, lamivudine, entecavir). Most babies born with Hep B are chronic. Vaccine available.
Satellite virus that infects with Hep B, needs envelope.
Flavivirus, +ssRNA, icosahedral enveloped. Usually chronic, can be cured sometimes (20%). High mutation rate so exists as a quasispecies. Leading indication for liver transplant. Drug users, sexual transmission. Treat with pegylated interferon alpha, ribavirin, and protease inhibitors.
PicoRNAvirus, fecal-oral transmission (MSM, travel). Causes acute hepatitis, vaccination available. Usually affects kids.
Countries with contaminated drinking water.
Retrovirus, +ssRNA, reverse transcriptase (RNA dep DNA pol), GP120 (anchoring), GP41 (fusion), P24 capsid (ELISAs), first infection in CD4+ Tcells/macrophages, enters using CD4 and CCR5. Later infection uses CXCR4. Error prone RT so many quasispecies. Kills CD4 cells. Initial infection is a flu like illness, then long period of latency with very slow decline of T cells (billions dying, but billions produced, viral load at set point), then characteristic illness. Long lived cells provide a lasting reservoir. Constant cycle of inflammation/immune response. Better to PCR for viral load then do antibody tests.
Ten EMTs were taken aback by lame zidane.
Tenofovir (kidney toxicity), emtracitibine, abacavir (sensitivity with HLA-B5701), lamivudine, zidovudine.
Never effect extras
Nevirapine (Liver toxicity)
Efavirenz (teratogen, psychiatric symptoms)
End with navir
Atazanivir, lopinavir, darunavir, forsamprinavir, tipranavir
Maraviroc and enfuviritide
dsDNA virus, naked, Types 16 and 18 have most E6 and E7 (cause cancers by screwing up p53 and Rb), types 6 and 11 cause genital warts, type 1 and 2 cause palmar/solar warts.
Flavivirus, Serotype 2 is most virulent, spread by A. aegypti, causes biphasic illness, first phase is malaise, fever, RETROORBITAL PAIN, bone marrow suppression, myalgias. Second phase is dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. ANTIBODY DEPENDENT ENHANCEMENT
Flavivirus, infects hepatocytes, causes jaundice and hepatitis. Live attenuated vaccine available. Spread by A. aegypti
West Nile Virus
Flavivirus, spread by Culex mosquito, transplant or blood. Causes encephalitis. NY/NJ