Final: GI - vomiting, SI, LI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final: GI - vomiting, SI, LI Deck (126)
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1

What is the preferred test for T. foetus ?

Fecal PCR

2

The large intestine is characterized by deep, straight _____ in which there are large numbers of _______.

Crypts

Goblet cells 

*Stressed in class*

3

Why is the antigen ELISA for giardia not recommended as a recheck test?

Can remain positive for a long time after clearance of the disease 

4

What emperic therapy do you try for a stable patient with chronic disease in which you suspect a primary enteropathy?

Deworming

Diet change

Antibiotic trial

+/- Pre or pro-biotics

5

A young shelter cat presents with waxing and waning LI diarrhea and a very painful edematous rectum. What is the likely diagnosis and how would you treat it? What symptoms, that usually resolve, can you expect?

Tritrichomonas foetus

Tx: Ronidazole (SID q2 weeks)

Neuro signs

6

Whatever the histologic type of IBD, treatment usually involves a combination of ________ with ______and/or ______ therapy.

Dietary modification

Antibacterial 

Immunosuppressive

7

What is the most important treatment modality in idiopathic IBD?

Immunosuppression

8

What drugs do you give a dog with Salmon Poisoning?

Oxytetracycline or Doxycycline (for neorickettsia)

Praziquantel (for fluke)

9

What are the 2 most important considerations when choosing a diet to feed an animal with GI disease?

Nutrient content

Digestibility

*Starred on slide*

10

A young dog has developed acute colitis due to dietary indiscretion. What is your first course of therapy? 

Withhold food temporarily and modify diet (low fat, highly digestible)

11

What cause of large bowel colitis also causes ocular and CNS signs in dogs? What is the treatment?

Prototheca (toxic algae)

Amphotericin B + Intraconazole

12

T/F: Most cats affected with feline idiopathic megacolon eventually require a colectomy. 

True

13

What is the major substrate for bacteria that is not digested by the SI?

Fermentable fiber

14

Why should TLI/PLI, serum cobalamin and/or folate be run on a dog presenting with colitis?

Extension of pancreatic inflammation can cause inflammation of the adjacent regions of the colon and cause signs of colitis

15

Histoplasmosis causes chronic LI diarrhea in young dogs and cats. What stains can you use to help demonstrate the organism in fixed tissues? What is the treatment?

PAS and Gomori's Methenamine silver stain

Intraconazole for 4-6 months

16

What is the term for repeated unsuccesful attempts to defecate or pain on defecation? What usually precedes this (clinical sign)?

Dyschezia

Staining to urinate and/or blood in urine

17

Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) causes ____ (SI/LI) disease, while enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) causes _____(SI/LI) disease.

ETEC= SI

EHEC= LI

18

Renal disease causes a loss of _____, with GI disease ______ and _______ are lost. 

Albumin

Globulins and Albumin

19

What must you give a dog with Heterobilharzia americana who has hypercalcemia?

Praziquantel 

*Starred on sides*

20

What medications can you use to treat mild histoplasmosis? Severe? 

For how long do you treat?

Mild: Intraconazole, Fluconazole, Ketoconazole (can cause Addision's)

Severe: Amphotericin B

Treat 6mo - 1 yr

21

What are the 3 main functions of the colonic microbiome?

Immune system interface

Energy for colonocytes

Synthesizing AAs and vitamins

22

If you have neuro signs accompanying GI signs in a cat, what parasite do you suspect? What eye clinical sign can this also cause?

T. gondii 

Chorioretinitis

23

What is the diet indicated for a dog with lymphangiectasia?

Fat-restricted

Calorie-dense

Highly digestible

+ Fat-soluble vitamin supplements

(Do not feed weight-reduction diet)

24

What disease associated with intracellular E.coli (AIEC) occurs frequently in young Boxer dogs and causes disease limited almost exclusively to the colon? How is it characterized histologically? What is the treatment?

Granulomatous Colitis 

(formely known as Histiocytic Ulcerative Colitis (HUC)) 

Histo: Presence of macrophages full of PAS-positive stain

Tx: Enrofloxacin 

(Do not give immunosuppressives!)

25

In what part of the GIT are most nutrients broken down?

Jejunum (microvilli of the)

26

Is cell turnover faster or slower in the large intestines (compared to SI)? How long is turnover?

Slower 

LI= 4-7 days 

(SI=3 days)

27

Impairement of Pattern Recognition Receptors, found on _____, are thought to be involved in IBD.

Phagocytes

28

What is the main energy requirement of enterocytes? What occurs when this is absent (4 things) ? What does this look like clinically?

Glutamine

Decline in villi structure, loss of epithelial integrity, decreased immune function, decreased absorptive function

CS: Weight-loss, secondary bacterial infections (-> sepsis), unthrifty

29

What are the most common biopsy diagnoses?

Inflammatory bowel disease (several types)

Lymphangectasia

Lymphoma

30

What are the 2 reasons a dog with colonic disease may be losing weight?

Concurrent small intestinal disease

Advanced disease

(Things that cause inappetence)