What is the preferred test for T. foetus ?
The large intestine is characterized by deep, straight _____ in which there are large numbers of _______.
*Stressed in class*
Why is the antigen ELISA for giardia not recommended as a recheck test?
Can remain positive for a long time after clearance of the disease
What emperic therapy do you try for a stable patient with chronic disease in which you suspect a primary enteropathy?
+/- Pre or pro-biotics
A young shelter cat presents with waxing and waning LI diarrhea and a very painful edematous rectum. What is the likely diagnosis and how would you treat it? What symptoms, that usually resolve, can you expect?
Tx: Ronidazole (SID q2 weeks)
Whatever the histologic type of IBD, treatment usually involves a combination of ________ with ______and/or ______ therapy.
What is the most important treatment modality in idiopathic IBD?
What drugs do you give a dog with Salmon Poisoning?
Oxytetracycline or Doxycycline (for neorickettsia)
Praziquantel (for fluke)
What are the 2 most important considerations when choosing a diet to feed an animal with GI disease?
*Starred on slide*
A young dog has developed acute colitis due to dietary indiscretion. What is your first course of therapy?
Withhold food temporarily and modify diet (low fat, highly digestible)
What cause of large bowel colitis also causes ocular and CNS signs in dogs? What is the treatment?
Prototheca (toxic algae)
Amphotericin B + Intraconazole
T/F: Most cats affected with feline idiopathic megacolon eventually require a colectomy.
What is the major substrate for bacteria that is not digested by the SI?
Why should TLI/PLI, serum cobalamin and/or folate be run on a dog presenting with colitis?
Extension of pancreatic inflammation can cause inflammation of the adjacent regions of the colon and cause signs of colitis
Histoplasmosis causes chronic LI diarrhea in young dogs and cats. What stains can you use to help demonstrate the organism in fixed tissues? What is the treatment?
PAS and Gomori's Methenamine silver stain
Intraconazole for 4-6 months
What is the term for repeated unsuccesful attempts to defecate or pain on defecation? What usually precedes this (clinical sign)?
Staining to urinate and/or blood in urine
Enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) causes ____ (SI/LI) disease, while enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) causes _____(SI/LI) disease.
Renal disease causes a loss of _____, with GI disease ______ and _______ are lost.
Globulins and Albumin
What must you give a dog with Heterobilharzia americana who has hypercalcemia?
*Starred on sides*
What medications can you use to treat mild histoplasmosis? Severe?
For how long do you treat?
Mild: Intraconazole, Fluconazole, Ketoconazole (can cause Addision's)
Severe: Amphotericin B
Treat 6mo - 1 yr
What are the 3 main functions of the colonic microbiome?
Immune system interface
Energy for colonocytes
Synthesizing AAs and vitamins
If you have neuro signs accompanying GI signs in a cat, what parasite do you suspect? What eye clinical sign can this also cause?
What is the diet indicated for a dog with lymphangiectasia?
+ Fat-soluble vitamin supplements
(Do not feed weight-reduction diet)
What disease associated with intracellular E.coli (AIEC) occurs frequently in young Boxer dogs and causes disease limited almost exclusively to the colon? How is it characterized histologically? What is the treatment?
(formely known as Histiocytic Ulcerative Colitis (HUC))
Histo: Presence of macrophages full of PAS-positive stain
(Do not give immunosuppressives!)
In what part of the GIT are most nutrients broken down?
Jejunum (microvilli of the)
Is cell turnover faster or slower in the large intestines (compared to SI)? How long is turnover?
LI= 4-7 days
Impairement of Pattern Recognition Receptors, found on _____, are thought to be involved in IBD.
What is the main energy requirement of enterocytes? What occurs when this is absent (4 things) ? What does this look like clinically?
Decline in villi structure, loss of epithelial integrity, decreased immune function, decreased absorptive function
CS: Weight-loss, secondary bacterial infections (-> sepsis), unthrifty
What are the most common biopsy diagnoses?
Inflammatory bowel disease (several types)
What are the 2 reasons a dog with colonic disease may be losing weight?
Concurrent small intestinal disease
(Things that cause inappetence)