Oncology: Thoracic tumors, OSA, urogenital, sarcomas, and MCTs (E2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Oncology: Thoracic tumors, OSA, urogenital, sarcomas, and MCTs (E2) Deck (127)
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1

What is most commonly the presenting complaint with chest wall tumors? What is the typical signalment?

Owners notice a firm and fixed thoracic wall mass 

Middle aged large dogs

2

What is the most common chest wall tumor? 2nd most common?

OSA

CSA

3

How do you work up and stage a chest wall tumor?

  1. Rads
  2. Cytology to diagnose it as a sarcoma 
  3. Open (wedge) biopsy for subtype of sarcoma *SUPER IMPORTANT*
    Large biospy from center of field, minimize hemorrhage 
  4. CT for surgical planning 

4

What form of chest wall tumor is often misdiagnosed as a chondrosarcoma and why is this misdiagnosis particularly problematic? 

Chondroblastic OSA

Very very aggressvie tumor 

5

How do you treat chest wall tumors? How many ribs can you remove, at most? When would you perform a diaphragmatic advancement? What can you use to help close large defects following ressection?

En bloc exision w/chest wall reconstruction 

Max 6 ribs

If the mass is located in the caudal thorax

Prosthetic mesh augementation 

6

For what type of chest wall tumor is adjuctive chemo recommended?

OSA 

(not with CSA)

7

While a 3cm skin margin is not required for chest wall tumors,  where is it important to get margins?

Around biopsy tract

8

What must you place before completing reconstruction after removing a chest wall tumor?

Place a thoracic tube

9

Is the MST longer for chest wall OSA or CSA?

CSA

(299-1080d vs 129-249d (depending on if doing chemo for OSA or not)

10

What unique comorbidity occurs in cats with lung tumors?

Lung-Digit Syndrome (mets to weight-bearing digits and 3rd phalanx) - Lameness

11

What is the most common lung tumor in dogs and cats and how are these tumors classified? Which subtype is more common in dogs? Cats?

Carcinomas (ACA)

By location 

Dogs: Bronchoalceolar 

Cats: Bronchial (larger airways

12

What staging method for lung tumors should be done with US guidance and under sedation? What is an essential tool for staging and why?

Transthoacic FNA/cytology

CT = essential because if metastasis to LN has occured the prognosis is poor

13

Why should you never amputate a cats digits without first taking chest rads?

Because the tumors on the digits are mets from a primary lung tumor, removing the toes will not prolong survival nor will removing any lung because this presentation indicates advanced disease 

14

What are the 5 prognostic variable for lung tumors in dogs?

Tumor size (smaller=better)

Location (more peripheral=better)

Presence of CS (coughing=worse)

Clinical change (mets=worse)

Histologic score (vascular/lymphatic invasion=worse)**POST-OP DETERMINATION*

15

What is the diference in MST in a cat with a poorly differentiated vs a well differentiated lung tumor? The presence of what is also a negative factor?

Poorly=2.5 mo

Well=23 mo 

Pleural effusion

16

What breeds are predisposed to histocytic sarcoma?

Bernese mountain dogs

Flat-coated retreiver 

17

A 10 year old cat presents with a mediastinal tumor as well as edema around the head, neck and forelimbs. What does this cat have and what caused it?

Caval syndrome

Tumor invasion into the cranial vena cava

18

What are the 2 most common cranial mediastinal tumors? 

LSA

Thymoma

19

A dog that has a cranial mediastinal mass and megaesophagus probably has a ______.

Thymoma

20

What will a cytology of a thymoma reveal? What can be done to differentiate thymic lymphocytes from lymphoma?

Neoplastic epithelial cells with large numbers of small mature lymphocytes as well as intermittent mast cells 

Flow cytometry 

21

How are thymomas classified? Which is more common in cats? What is the treatment (include any meds)?

As invasive or non-invasive

Cats: Non-invasive (50-100%) 

Surgery= Gold standard treatment

Cats should always get steroids

 

22

Is the prognosis better for dogs or cats with thymoma?

Cats (MST 1825d vs 790d)

23

What are the 3 poor prognostic factors for dogs with thymoma?

Young age

Megaesophagus

Histologic subtype (Lymphocyte rich variant better)

24

What is the most common primary bone tumor in dogs and cats? Which species is affected more commonly and where do they tend to form? 

OSA

Dogs

Appendicular skeleton 

25

What is the typical signalment for OSA in dogs?

Neutered male large to giant breed (Rottweiler, Great dane, Scottish deerhounds) either 1-2yrs old or 7-9yrs old.

26

What are your top differentials for primary bone tumors in dogs?

OSA

CSA

FSA

HSA

27

If a dog presents with systemic illness and a mass that looks a lot like an OSA, what else could it be (other than a tumor)?

Infectious fungal disease: Valley Fever (Coccidiodes immitis), Blastomyces dermatitis 

28

What is the most common location for an OSA to form? 2nd most common? 

Distal radius

Proximal humurus 

Away from the elbow, toward the knee

29

What are the 3 basic types of OSA? Which is most common?

Endosteal (most common)

Periosteal

Parosteal

30

What diagnostics should you perform for OSA?

CBC/Chem - Increased ALP is bad

Thoracic met check or CT met check

Localized imaging

Nuclear scintigraphy (gold standard) or full body rads