What term describes vision in a well-lit environment? What about a dark environment?
What is the term for using light that is shone into the eye to reflect against internal structures and highlight normal and abnormal features during an ophtho exam?
What test can you perform to detect disease of the orbit or space occupying disease behind the globe?
What test can you perform to test nasolacrimal patency? What type of solution is used?
Fluoroscein stain (goes in the eye, and if positive comes out the nose)
Which test is used to confirm corneal perforation?
(will see 'bubbles' when you stain the eye at the site of perforation)
What can be used to assess the health of the ocular surface because it becomes disturbed when the surface is irregular?
What are the 3 tests you can perform during an exam to assess vision?
Cotton ball test
What are the 3 tests used for orbital symmetry?
Dorsal view assessment
Which of these pictures shows an eyeball being retroilluminated?
The bottom one
(Can see vitreal opacities)
What nerves does the palpebral reflex test? Menace response?
Palpebral: V (afferent), VII (efferent)
Menace: II (afferent), VII (efferent)
Also note that menace is a response not a reflex
What nerves does the PLR test? What about the dazzle reflex?
PLR: II (afferent), III (efferent)
Dazzle: II (afferent), VII (efferent)
What nerve does not need to function in order to elicit a postive oculocephalic reflex, though it is necessary to develop the reflex initially?
What tests are in the Minimum Data Base (for ophtho)?
Schirmer Tear Test
Fluoroscein Stain- for corneal ulcer, Jones, and Seidel
Which parts of the eye stain because the are hydrophilic?
(Epithelium and Descemet's membrane don't stain- hydrophobic)
T/F: A positive Jones Test demonstrates nasolacrimal patency, but a negative test does not necessarily prove nasolacrimal obstruction.
Should you perform tonometry to measure intraocular pressure before or after pupil dilation with tropicamide? What is the measurement in (unit)? What do pressures >25 with vision loss indicate? What does low pressure indicate?
What is the arrow indicating?
A disrupted specular reflection
Aqueous flare is pathognomic for what disease process?
What is the term for a congenitally small and malformed globe?
What is the term for an acquired shrunken globe, most often from severe or chronic inflammation?
What is the term for anterior displacement of the globe such that the eyelids are caught behind the equator of the globe?
T/F: The boney orbit is part of the adnexa.
T/F: Cats and dogs have open orbits with an orbital ligament which forms the lateral boundary of the orbital rim.
(Horses and ruminants have closed orbits)
Relative to skull size, does the orbital ligament span a greater or shorter portion of the orbital rim in brachycephalic dogs?
(Orbit is much shallower)
What disorder of globe position is commonly associated with third eyelid protrusion, facial swelling, soft palate bulging, fever and pain when opening the mouth?
Exophthamos - abnormal protrusion of eye from orbit
What is the single most common mechanism that causes exophthalmos? What are 2 conditions in the dog that commonly cause this?
Orbital volume imbalance
Orbital neoplasia (no pain) and orbital cellulitis/abscess (pain)
What is the enlargement of the globe due to glaucoma?
What is the difference between enucleation and exenteration?
Enucleation= removal of eye
Exenteration = removal of eye + all orbital contents
What's wrong here? What clinical signs are commonly associated with this condition?
Enophthalmos (abnormal recession of the eye within the orbit)
CS: uni-or bilateral facial muscle loss, third eyelid protrusion, entropion
What are the three common mechanisms of enophalmos? Also give one common cause of each of these.
1. Orbital volume imbalances: Dehydration, emaciation/cachexia, myopathies, space occupying lesions anterior to globe
2. Active globe retraction: Pain (skeletal muscle (retractor bulbi))
3. Passive glove retraction: Horner's Syndrome