Final: Ophthalmology - Exam, Orbit, Eyelids, Conjunctiva and Lacrimal System Flashcards Preview

SAM 2 scs RUSVM > Final: Ophthalmology - Exam, Orbit, Eyelids, Conjunctiva and Lacrimal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final: Ophthalmology - Exam, Orbit, Eyelids, Conjunctiva and Lacrimal System Deck (83)
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1

What term describes vision in a well-lit environment? What about a dark environment?

Photoptic

Scotoptic 

2

What is the term for using light that is shone into the eye to reflect against internal structures and highlight normal and abnormal features during an ophtho exam?

Retroillumination

3

What test can you perform to detect disease of the orbit or space occupying disease behind the globe?

Retropulsion

4

What test can you perform to test nasolacrimal patency? What type of solution is used?

Jones Test 

Fluoroscein stain (goes in the eye, and if positive comes out the nose)

5

Which test is used to confirm corneal perforation?

Seidel test

 (will see 'bubbles' when you stain the eye at the site of perforation)

6

What can be used to assess the health of the ocular surface because it becomes disturbed when the surface is irregular?

Specular reflection

7

What are the 3 tests you can perform during an exam to assess vision?

Cotton ball test

Photopic maze

Scotopic maze

8

What are the 3 tests used for orbital symmetry?

Orbital palpation

Dorsal view assessment

Retropulsion

9

Which of these pictures shows an eyeball being retroilluminated?

The bottom one

(Can see vitreal opacities)

10

What nerves does the palpebral reflex test? Menace response?

Palpebral: V (afferent), VII (efferent)

Menace: II (afferent), VII (efferent)

 

Also note that menace is a response not a reflex

11

What nerves does the PLR test? What about the dazzle reflex?

PLR: II (afferent), III (efferent)

Dazzle: II (afferent), VII (efferent)

12

What nerve does not need to function in order to elicit a postive oculocephalic reflex, though it is necessary to develop the reflex initially?

CN II

13

What tests are in the Minimum Data Base (for ophtho)?

Schirmer Tear Test 

Fluoroscein Stain- for corneal ulcer, Jones, and Seidel

Tonometry

14

Which parts of the eye stain because the are hydrophilic?

Tear film

Stroma

(Epithelium and Descemet's membrane don't stain- hydrophobic)

15

T/F: A positive Jones Test demonstrates nasolacrimal patency, but a negative test does not necessarily prove nasolacrimal obstruction.

True

16

Should you perform tonometry to measure intraocular pressure before or after pupil dilation with tropicamide? What is the measurement in (unit)? What do pressures >25 with vision loss indicate? What does low pressure indicate?

Before 

mmHg

High= Glaucoma

Low= Uveitis

N= 10-25mmHg

17

What is the arrow indicating?

A disrupted specular reflection

18

Aqueous flare is pathognomic for what disease process?

Uveitis

19

What is the term for a congenitally small and malformed globe?

Microphthalmos

20

What is the term for an acquired shrunken globe, most often from severe or chronic inflammation?

Phthisis bulbi

21

What is the term for anterior displacement of the globe such that the eyelids are caught behind the equator of the globe?

Proptosis

22

T/F: The boney orbit is part of the adnexa. 

True

23

T/F: Cats and dogs have open orbits with an orbital ligament which forms the lateral boundary of the orbital rim.

True 

(Horses and ruminants have closed orbits)

24

Relative to skull size, does the orbital ligament span a greater or shorter portion of the orbital rim in brachycephalic dogs?

Greater 

(Orbit is much shallower)

25

What disorder of globe position is commonly associated with third eyelid protrusion, facial swelling, soft palate bulging, fever and pain when opening the mouth?

Exophthamos - abnormal protrusion of eye from orbit

26

What is the single most common mechanism that causes exophthalmos? What are 2 conditions in the dog that commonly cause this?

Orbital volume imbalance

Orbital neoplasia (no pain) and orbital cellulitis/abscess (pain)

27

What is the enlargement of the globe due to glaucoma?

Buphthalmos

28

What is the difference between enucleation and exenteration?

Enucleation= removal of eye 

Exenteration = removal of eye + all orbital contents 

29

What's wrong here? What clinical signs are commonly associated with this condition?

Enophthalmos (abnormal recession of the eye within the orbit)

CS: uni-or bilateral facial muscle loss, third eyelid protrusion, entropion

30

What are the three common mechanisms of enophalmos? Also give one common cause of each of these. 

1. Orbital volume imbalances: Dehydration, emaciation/cachexia, myopathies, space occupying lesions anterior to globe 

2. Active globe retraction: Pain (skeletal muscle (retractor bulbi))

3. Passive glove retraction: Horner's Syndrome