Urology and Nephrology (E1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urology and Nephrology (E1) Deck (213)
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1

How much CO do the kidneys take?

25%

2

What percentage of water is reabsorbed at the proximal tubules?

65%

3

Which hormones work at the distal tubules? Where is it produced? What is it's function?

Aldosterone
-Adrenal cortex
-Reabsorb sodium, excretes potassium to increase blood pressure

ADH (vasopressin) [also works in collecting duct]
-Pituitary gland
-Opens aquaporins to bring water back into circulation, concentrating urine

4

What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus measure?

Blood pressure

5

Which hormones are produced in the kidney? What are their functions?

EPO
-RBC production (bone marrow)

1,25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol (Calcitriol)
-active form of vitamin D

Renin
-Converts Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I (liver, RAAS)

6

What function does PTH have on the kidneys?

Signals kidneys to excrete phosphorous and reabsorb calcium to increase [calcium] in the body

7

What are the causes of pre-renal azotemia?

Dehydration
Hypoadrenocorticism
Cardiac disease
Hypovolemia
Shock

(Perfusion problems)

8

What are the causes of renal azotemia?

Parenchymal disease
Infections
Cysts
Inflammation
Neoplasia
Toxins

9

What are the causes of post-renal azotemia?

Blockage - urethral/bladder or just urethral

(Obstruction)

10

T/F Azotemia occurs when renal disease is present.

False, it indicates renal FAILURE

11

What are the 4 things that occur in cases of uremia?

Azotemia

Hypoalbuminemia

Hypercholesterolemia

Metabolic acidosis

12

What are accurate techniques for determining GFR?

GOLD STANDARD- Renal scintigraphy (radioisotopes)

Iohexal/Inulin/ creatinine clearance tests

13

Why does GIT bleeding, intravascular hemolysis and high protein diets cause false positives when using urea to measure GFR?

Causes liver to produce more urea

14

T/F: Creatinine is a better indicator for GFR than urea.

True

15

What polypeptide protease inhibitor is produced by all nucleated cells is used to measure GFR?

Cystatin C

16

What combination of tests is usually used to assess the kidneys?

SDMA

Creatinine

Complete urinalysis

17

Protein, pH, ketones, blood and which other value is useful when analyzing a urine dipstick?

Glucose

18

What is the normal reference range for a dog's urine specific gravity? A cat?

Dogs >1.030

Cats >1.035

19

What are the 2 first choice antibiotics to treat a UTI?

Cephalosporins

Amoxi-Clav

20

What disease must be ruled out before performing a partial water deprivation test? What is this test for?

Cushing's

Diabetes insipitus vs psychogenic polydipsia

21

If the specific gravity of urine increases when you give desmopressin, which type of DI is present?

Central

22

What type of azotemia is present if the fractional Na excretion is <1%?

Pre-renal

23

Why is it better to perform a urinalysis in house?

Storage causes crystal growth and the disintegration of casts and cells.

24

Why would you get a false positive UPC when a UTI is present?

Bacteria contain protein

25

What test should be performed before a UPC?

Urine sediment

26

What is the unit used to quantify bacterial culture growth?

Colony forming units (cfu)

27

T/F: Kidney biopsy samples should include cortex and medulla.

False, only cortex (risk damaging vessels)

28

Which Acid/Base derangement is common with renal disease/failure?

Metabolic acidosis

29

What is the normal ml/kg/hr urine output in dogs?

1-2 ml/kg/hr

30

T/F Patients with chronic renal failure may not have a decreased USG.

False, acute may not have a decreased USG (due to testing stored urine)