Flashcards in Urology and Nephrology (E1) Deck (213)
How much CO do the kidneys take?
What percentage of water is reabsorbed at the proximal tubules?
Which hormones work at the distal tubules? Where is it produced? What is it's function?
-Reabsorb sodium, excretes potassium to increase blood pressure
ADH (vasopressin) [also works in collecting duct]
-Opens aquaporins to bring water back into circulation, concentrating urine
What does the juxtaglomerular apparatus measure?
Which hormones are produced in the kidney? What are their functions?
-RBC production (bone marrow)
1,25 Dihydroxycholecalciferol (Calcitriol)
-active form of vitamin D
-Converts Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I (liver, RAAS)
What function does PTH have on the kidneys?
Signals kidneys to excrete phosphorous and reabsorb calcium to increase [calcium] in the body
What are the causes of pre-renal azotemia?
What are the causes of renal azotemia?
What are the causes of post-renal azotemia?
Blockage - urethral/bladder or just urethral
T/F Azotemia occurs when renal disease is present.
False, it indicates renal FAILURE
What are the 4 things that occur in cases of uremia?
What are accurate techniques for determining GFR?
GOLD STANDARD- Renal scintigraphy (radioisotopes)
Iohexal/Inulin/ creatinine clearance tests
Why does GIT bleeding, intravascular hemolysis and high protein diets cause false positives when using urea to measure GFR?
Causes liver to produce more urea
T/F: Creatinine is a better indicator for GFR than urea.
What polypeptide protease inhibitor is produced by all nucleated cells is used to measure GFR?
What combination of tests is usually used to assess the kidneys?
Protein, pH, ketones, blood and which other value is useful when analyzing a urine dipstick?
What is the normal reference range for a dog's urine specific gravity? A cat?
What are the 2 first choice antibiotics to treat a UTI?
What disease must be ruled out before performing a partial water deprivation test? What is this test for?
Diabetes insipitus vs psychogenic polydipsia
If the specific gravity of urine increases when you give desmopressin, which type of DI is present?
What type of azotemia is present if the fractional Na excretion is <1%?
Why is it better to perform a urinalysis in house?
Storage causes crystal growth and the disintegration of casts and cells.
Why would you get a false positive UPC when a UTI is present?
Bacteria contain protein
What test should be performed before a UPC?
What is the unit used to quantify bacterial culture growth?
Colony forming units (cfu)
T/F: Kidney biopsy samples should include cortex and medulla.
False, only cortex (risk damaging vessels)
Which Acid/Base derangement is common with renal disease/failure?
What is the normal ml/kg/hr urine output in dogs?