Final Gross - Thoracic Wall, Lungs, and Middle Mediastinum Flashcards Preview

SP14 Anatomy > Final Gross - Thoracic Wall, Lungs, and Middle Mediastinum > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Gross - Thoracic Wall, Lungs, and Middle Mediastinum Deck (75):
1

This range of ribs are known as the true ribs, having their own costal cartilage/attachment to the sternum

ribs 1-7

2

This range of ribs are the falst ribs, do not have their own costal cartilage attachment

ribs 8-12

3

These are the floating ribs, they are not attached to the sternum

ribs 11 and 12

4

This part of the sternum has the clavicular notch for sternoclavicular joint

manubrium

5

This part of the sternum joins the manubrium at sternal angle (of Louis)

body

6

This is the lowest point of the sternum

xiphoid process

7

This joint is a secondary cartilaginous joint symphysis = slightly movable

manubriosternal joint

8

This is a primary cartilaginous joint synchrondriosis = immovable joint

xiphosternal joint

9

What can become of the manubriosternal and xiphosternal joint as we age

they may fuse (ossify)

10

This part of the ribs articulates with 2 vertebral bodies and 1 disc

head

11

This part of the ribs articulates with 1 transverse process

tubercle

12

This region of the ribs is the of the greatest curve (angle is found here)

body

13

This part of the ribs is formed by intercostal vein, artery, and nerve

costal groove

14

This is the region of muscle attachment between upper limb and anterior chest

the pectoral region of the thoracic wall

15

What muscles compose the pectoral region

pectoralis major and minor

16

This muscle is divided into clavicular and sternocostal heads

pectoralis major

17

This muscle is enveloped in clavipectoral fascia

pectoralis minor

18

What bones and muscles are found in the anterior thoracic wall

ribs and sternum
pectoral, intercostal, and subcostal muscles

19

What vessels/nerves are found in the anterior thoracic wall

intercostal vessels and nerves
internal thoracic vessels

20

What are the different intercostal muscles

external
internal
innermost

21

These are located in the costal groove along the inferior rib superiorly

intercostal vein, artery, and nerve (in that order from superior to inferior)

22

These are located just superior to the superior part of a rib, or the inferior most part of an intercostal space

collateral nerve, artery, and vein (in that order from superior to inferior)

23

What vessles/nerve branches to give the collateral vessels/nerve

intercostal

24

The collateral and intercostal vessels re-join to form what

anterior perforating branches of intercostal vessels

25

Where do the anterior perforating branches branch at

just medial to internal thoracic artery and vein (closer to sternum)

26

This is the serous secreting membranes that reduce friction

pleura

27

This pleura covers the thoracic wall and is very sensitive to pain

parietal pleura

28

What nerves innervate the parietal pleura

intercostal and phrenic nerves

29

This pleura covers the lungs and is not sensitive to pain

visceral pleura

30

Where are both pleural layers continuous at

at the root of the lung

31

What are the four portions of the parietal pleura

cervical
costal
diaphragmatic
mediastinal

32

The pleural cavities are potential spaces of which can be filled with effusion (pathological fluid) and cause what damages

may compress lungs
difficulty breathing
pleural effusions are visible on chest radiographs

33

This is accumulation of air in the pleural cavity causing the collapse of the lung due to its own elasticity

pneumothorax

34

This is accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity and may cause adhesions and infection

hemothorax

35

This is inflammation of the pleura and usually leads to the formation of pleural adhesions between the parietal and visceral pleura; also can cause pain

pleurisy

36

This is the aspiration of fluids in the lungs

pleural tap; thoracentesis

37

Where is the best location for a thoracentesis

midaxillary line or slightly posterior
ICS of 6 or 7, in order not to pierce the diaphragm, liver/spleen, and to avoid the intercostals and collaterals.

38

Which lung has three lobes

right lung
upper, middle, and lower

39

Which lung has two lobes

left lung
upper and lower

40

What major fissure is found on both lungs

oblique

41

What minor fissure is found on the right lung one, separating the upper and middle lobes

horizontal

42

Where is the bronchus in the hilum of the right lung

it is always superior to pulmonary vessels

43

Where are the pulmonary veins located in the hilum of both lungs

most anterior/inferior

44

Where is the pulmonary artery in the hilum of the left lung

it is the most superior

45

This connects the lung to the mediastinum and is covered in a sleeve of pleura

root of the lungs

46

What is located in the root of the lungs

bronchi and pulmonary vessels

47

This is located inferior as the sleeve of pleura around the root of the lungs is mostly empty and collapsed, contains only a few lymph vessels

pulmonary ligament

48

This nerve passes anteriorly to the roots and is closely applied to pericardial sac

phrenic nerve

49

These vessels run with the phrenic nerve and are branches of internal thoracic artery and brachiocephalic vein

pericardiacophrenic vessels

50

This nerve passes posterior to roots and is closely applied to the trachea, esophagus, and aorta

vagus nerve

51

What does the vagus nerve pass anteriorly to near the left lung

anterior to arch of aorta

52

This artery supplies nutrients to bronchi and lungs

bronchia artery

53

Where do the sympathetic nerves come from that innervate the lungs

sympathetic trunk; T1-T5

54

Where do the parasympathetic nerves come from that innervate the lugns

vagus

55

The splits into the 2 primary bronchi

trachea

56

The primary bronchi split into what

2 (L) or 3 (R) secondary (lobar) bronchi

57

The secondary bronchi spilt into what

8 (L) or 10 (R) tertiary (segmental) bronchi

58

This is the median space between the 2 pleural sacs extending from thoracic inlet to diaphragm and from sternum to 12th thoracic vertebrae

mediastinum

59

What are the divisions of the mediastinum

superior
anterior
middle
posterior

60

This division of the mediastinum is above the sternal angle and T4-T5 IV disc

superior

61

This division of the mediastinum is between the sternum and pericardium (thymus found here)

anterior

62

This division of the mediastimun contains the pericardium and related structures

middle

63

This division of the mediastinum is between the pericardium and T5-T12 vertebrae

posterior

64

What structures does the middle mediastinum contain

pericardium and heart
phrenic nerve applied to pericardium
pericardiacophrenic vessels
roots of great vessels to and from heart

65

This is the tough fibrous sac line with serous membrane enclosing the heart and pierced by the roots of 8 vessels

pericardium

66

This portion of the pericardium is attached to the diaphragm interiorly

fibrous portion

67

This portion of the pericardium is divided into the parietal and visceral layers

serous portion

68

What are the 8 vessels that pierce the pericardium

SVC
IVC
aorta
pulmonary trunk
4 pulmonary vessels

69

This lines the out fibrous pericardium

parietal pericardium

70

This covers the surface of the heart

visceral pericardium (epicardium)

71

The is the complete inner pericardial membrane (parietal and visceral layers)

pericardial sac

72

This is inside the pericardial sac and is a potential space between the serous and parietal layers containing only a small amount of serious fluid

pericardial cavity

73

This is the accumulation of fluid in pericardial cavity resulting in the compression of the heart, common with congestive heart failure

pericardial effusion

74

This is the accumulation of blood in the pericardial cavity associated with penetrating heart wounds or perforated heart muscles following MI

hemopericardium

75

Arterial bleeding into pericardial cavity leads to what

cardiac tamponade; compression of the heart and roots of great vessels