Flashcards in FINAL Hematological Testing Deck (24):
6 parts of the CBC ( Complete Blood Count)
1. RBC 6. Red Cell Indices
5. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)
Why can RBC be elevated?
Dehydration and burns
Why can RBC be Too low?
Anemia or bleeding
What gauge needle should be used to prevent hemolysis?
What is the approximate # of circulating Leukocytes in blood?
4500 - 11,000/mm3
What does and increase in WBC mean?
Possible infection or possible corticosteroid use.
What is hemoglobin?
Protein molecule in RBC that carries oxygen. It is 85% of a RBC's weight.
14-18mg/100ml in males
12-16mg/100ml in females
What is a microhematocrit?
It measures the % of packed RBC in a volume of blood.
A reading of 40 means 40% of the blood's volume is RBCs.
Normal male 39-49 g/DL
Normal female 38-45 g/DL
What is a hemoglobinometer?
A device that measures the hemoglobin amount.
What is ESR?
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, ESR, Sed Rate
Measures in mm of sedimentation that forms in 1 hour (mm/hr)
Screening tool for the inflammatory process
Red Cell Indices
Quantitative amount of hemoglobin as well as size, shape, and number of RBC
MCV, MCH, MCHC, RCDW
Mean Cell Volume (MCV)-measures the size of RBCs. Machine
Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH)-Hemoglobin amount per RBC
Mean Cell Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC)-Amount of Hgb relative to the size of the cell/ RBC. Calculated Hgb/Hct=MCHC
What are coagulation studies for?
Measure ability of blood to clot
Includes PT, PTT, INR
What is the goal of anticoagulant therapy?
To prolong time for blood to clot without causing excessive bleeding (3 times normal)
Blue capped tube, if not done immediately, centrifuge
What are the 2 clotting pathways
Extrinsic pathway - dependent on vitamin K
Intrinsic pathway - not dependent on vitamin K
Which test uses the Extrinsic Pathway?
Prothrombin Time (PT)
For patients on Warfarin (Coumadin)
Which test uses the intrinsic pathway?
Partial Prothromboplastin Time (PTT)
For hemophiliacs ( deficient in factor viii or factor ix)
Assesses heparin therapy
What is INR?
International Normalized Ratio
Corrects variations between labs
Normal value of an INR is 1
If taking anticoagulants should be maintained between 2.0 - 3.5
What is FBS?
Fasting Blood Sugar- glucose level after pt has been fasting for 8-10 hours prior to test, normal levels 80-109
Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP)
Electrolytes - Sodium, potassium, carbon dioxide, chloride
Blood, urea, nitrogen (BUN)
System Function Tests (SFT) Heart???
SGOT. Enzyme found in muscles
SFT --- Kidney??