MA Chapter 33 Vocabulary Flashcards Preview

Medical Assisting > MA Chapter 33 Vocabulary > Flashcards

Flashcards in MA Chapter 33 Vocabulary Deck (68):
0

Aneroid

The gauge on a blood pressure cuff.

1

Apex

Top of the heart

2

Arrhythmia

Abnormal heart rate, rhythm and conduction.

3

Aural

Relate to, or received by the ear.

4

Auscultatory Gap

A period in which sound is not heard.

The disappearance of sounds between phases 1&2 of korokoff sounds

5

Axillary

Armpit

6

Baseline

Measurement of vital signs that serves as a basis against which all subsequent vital signs are compared.

7

Bradypnea

Slow breathing.

8

Cheyne-Stokes Respirations

Apnea >>>gradually increasing depth and rate>>>gradually decreasing depth and rate>>>apnea.

Pattern seen in pts near death and with head injury.

9

Diurnal

Active during the day.

Temp. lowest in the morning

10

Dyspnea

Difficult breathing.

11

Hyperpnea

Abnormally fast breathing

12

Hyperthermia

Increased body temperature.

13

Hyperventilation

Sudden quick and deep breathing, characterized by the loss of too much CO2, which leads to lightheadedness, then anxiety. Have pt breath in paper bag to increase CO2 level.

14

Hypopnea

Abnormally slow breathing.

15

Hypothermia

Abnormally low body temperature. Core temperature below 95 degrees F. Shivering, blue skin, mental confusion, numbness, slurred speech.

16

Orthopnea

Person can breathe only standing up. Difficultly breathing while lying down.

17

Oral

By mouth

18

Orthostatic hypotension

Sudden decrease in blood pressure when you stand up.

19

Palpate

Feel

20

Pyrexia

High fever. 103 - 105 degrees.

21

Hyperpyrexia

Extremely high temperature. Over 105 degrees.
Can cause convulsions, brain damage, or death
Sponge with tepid water
Do not immerse in ice

22

Rectal

Pertains to the rectum.

23

Remittent Fever

A fever whose symptoms abate at regular intervals but still remains above normal

24

Sphygmomanometer

Instrument used to measure blood pressure.

25

Stethoscope

Instrument used to listen to breath and heart sounds

26

Tachycardia

Rapid heart rate

27

Tachypnea

Rapid breathing

28

Tympanic

Area of the eardrums.

29

Anthropometric Measurement

Measures the size of a patient.

30

Core Temperature

98.6 - 99.4 degrees F
36 - 37.4 degrees C
Regulated by the Hypothalamus (just above the brain stem)
Metabolism is a chemical process that produces heat. I.e. digestion,respiration,ovulation,etc

31

Fever/Low Grade Fever

Hypothalamus responds to disease and increases core temp. This increases the body's ability to fight off the disease.
Shivering produces heat and constricted blood vessels help to maintain the temp.
Temps greater than 101 degrees F are usually treated.
Low grade 99 - 101, moderate 101.1 - 103

32

Continuous Fever

Stays about the same all the time and returns when the medication wears off.

33

Intermittent Fever

Spikes and returns to normal in a regular pattern

34

Remittent Fever

Rises and falls but always above normal.

35

Relapsing Fever

Goes away and returns.

36

Glass (mercury/non-mercury) Thermometers

The alloy in the bulb expands with the heat and rises up the glass tube which is marked with a scale. Shake down to reset.
Pear shape-Oral use blue wrapper.
Round shape -Rectal use red wrapper.
Hold at eye level and rotate slowly to read.

37

Electronic Thermometer

Disposable cover fits over tip.
Pace in charger when not in use.
Oral probe is blue.
Rectal probe is red.

38

Tympanic Thermometer

Disposable ear tip cover.
Infrared signal bounces off eardrum.
Straighten ear.-- adults pull slightly up and back.
-- children slightly back.

39

Disposable Forehead Thermometers

Less accurate

40

Pulse

Heartbeats that are throbbing in places, in the body, where the arteries are compressed against bone.

41

What can increase your pulse?

Stress
Emotions
Physical Activity
Fever
Pain
Infection
Later in the day
Women have a faster pulse than men.

42

What can decrease your pulse?

Depression
Chronic illness
Dehydration
Hemorrhage

43

Things that can either increase or decrease your pulse.

Medications
Heat and circulatory disease

44

Characteristics of a pulse. (3)

1. Rate - # of beats per minute.
2. Rhythm - time between pulsations (are the evenly spread)
3. Volume - Strength. Strong is called bounding.
Weak may be called thready.

45

Arteries that can be used to check pulses.

Temporal
Carotid
Apical
Brachial
Radial
Ulnar

46

What are normal rates for a pulse?

Adult 60 - 100
7 - 12 60 - 100
1 - 7. 80 - 120
Infants. 110 - 170

47

How do you check a pulse?

If it is regular - count for 30 seconds and multiply by 2.
If irregular - count for full 60 seconds.
If weak - do an apical pulse with a stethoscope over apex of heart, count for 60 seconds.

48

Bradycardia

Slow heart rate, less than 60 bpm

49

Tachycardia

Rapid heart rate - greater than 100 bpm.

50

How do Respirations occur?

When CO2 levels increase the medulla oblongata (in the center of brain stem) responds.

51

COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Breathing is in response to decreased O2 levels.
DO NOT increase oxygen

52

Factors that increase Respiratory rate

Fever
Exercise
Excitement
Stimulant

53

Factors that decrease Respiratory rate

Sleep
Head injuries
Narcotics

54

Characteristics of Rspirations

Rate - per minute (if no symptoms can count for 30 sec. X 2)
Rhythm - how even, regular intervals and depth.
Depth - amount in and out i.e. shallow

55

What is Blood Pressure?

Pressure against the walls of Arteries which carry blood throughout the body.

56

2 numbers in mmHg. What are they?

Systole - when the heart ventricles contract.
Diastole - between heartbeats (shows arteries resistance to blood flow)

57

5 Physiologic Factors for Control of Blood Pressure

1. Blood volume - kidneys regulate volume. > the vol. the ^ the BP.
2. Peripheral Resistance - constriction of arteriolar. > constr. ^ BP
3. Elasticity of artery walls.
4. Heart's pumping actions.
5. Blood viscosity - thickness of blood.

58

Factors increasing Blood Pressure

Exercise
Stress
Anxiety
Increased weight
Smoking
Pain

59

Factors that Decrease Blood Pressure

Hemorrhage
Depression
Dehydration
Relaxation

60

Medications that decrease Blood Pressure

Beta-Blockers - decrease heart rate & BP response of beta receptors in heart, arteries and vessels.
ARB inhibitors
Diuretics - water absorption from the kidneys
Vasodilators - relax arteries
Calcium Channel Blockers - systemic vasodilation

61

How to take Blood Pressure measurement

Listen over brachial artery with stethoscope while decreasing slowly. Systolic - the first beat you hear is the blood flow against resistance until Diastolic - there is no longer any resistance.

62

Korokoff Sounds - 5 Phases

1. Tapping - Systolic
2. Soft swishing
3. Distinctive Tapping
4. Fainter
5. No sound - Diastolic

63

Pulse Pressure

Systolic - Diastolic = Pulse Pressure
Average 30 - 50 mm Hg

64

Average Blood Pressure by Ages
Infant - 3
3 - 6
6 - 13
13 - 19
Adult

Infant - 3 90/50
3 - 6. 94/56
6 - 13. 110/70
13 - 19. 120/80
Adult. 120/80

65

Selecting BP Cuff

Width of the cuff should be 2/3 the size of the patient's arm.

66

Under what circumstances should you not use a patient's arm?

- if a pt has had a mastectomy on that side.
- if a pt has a shunt for dialysis

67

Documentation of BP

Note position of pt if not sitting.
Note which arm
Record in chart as soon as they are taken.