Flashcards in MA Chapter 33 Vocabulary Deck (68):
The gauge on a blood pressure cuff.
Top of the heart
Abnormal heart rate, rhythm and conduction.
Relate to, or received by the ear.
A period in which sound is not heard.
The disappearance of sounds between phases 1&2 of korokoff sounds
Measurement of vital signs that serves as a basis against which all subsequent vital signs are compared.
Apnea >>>gradually increasing depth and rate>>>gradually decreasing depth and rate>>>apnea.
Pattern seen in pts near death and with head injury.
Active during the day.
Temp. lowest in the morning
Abnormally fast breathing
Increased body temperature.
Sudden quick and deep breathing, characterized by the loss of too much CO2, which leads to lightheadedness, then anxiety. Have pt breath in paper bag to increase CO2 level.
Abnormally slow breathing.
Abnormally low body temperature. Core temperature below 95 degrees F. Shivering, blue skin, mental confusion, numbness, slurred speech.
Person can breathe only standing up. Difficultly breathing while lying down.
Sudden decrease in blood pressure when you stand up.
High fever. 103 - 105 degrees.
Extremely high temperature. Over 105 degrees.
Can cause convulsions, brain damage, or death
Sponge with tepid water
Do not immerse in ice
Pertains to the rectum.
A fever whose symptoms abate at regular intervals but still remains above normal
Instrument used to measure blood pressure.
Instrument used to listen to breath and heart sounds
Rapid heart rate
Area of the eardrums.
Measures the size of a patient.
98.6 - 99.4 degrees F
36 - 37.4 degrees C
Regulated by the Hypothalamus (just above the brain stem)
Metabolism is a chemical process that produces heat. I.e. digestion,respiration,ovulation,etc
Fever/Low Grade Fever
Hypothalamus responds to disease and increases core temp. This increases the body's ability to fight off the disease.
Shivering produces heat and constricted blood vessels help to maintain the temp.
Temps greater than 101 degrees F are usually treated.
Low grade 99 - 101, moderate 101.1 - 103
Stays about the same all the time and returns when the medication wears off.
Spikes and returns to normal in a regular pattern
Rises and falls but always above normal.
Goes away and returns.
Glass (mercury/non-mercury) Thermometers
The alloy in the bulb expands with the heat and rises up the glass tube which is marked with a scale. Shake down to reset.
Pear shape-Oral use blue wrapper.
Round shape -Rectal use red wrapper.
Hold at eye level and rotate slowly to read.
Disposable cover fits over tip.
Pace in charger when not in use.
Oral probe is blue.
Rectal probe is red.
Disposable ear tip cover.
Infrared signal bounces off eardrum.
Straighten ear.-- adults pull slightly up and back.
-- children slightly back.
Disposable Forehead Thermometers
Heartbeats that are throbbing in places, in the body, where the arteries are compressed against bone.
What can increase your pulse?
Later in the day
Women have a faster pulse than men.
What can decrease your pulse?
Things that can either increase or decrease your pulse.
Heat and circulatory disease
Characteristics of a pulse. (3)
1. Rate - # of beats per minute.
2. Rhythm - time between pulsations (are the evenly spread)
3. Volume - Strength. Strong is called bounding.
Weak may be called thready.
Arteries that can be used to check pulses.
What are normal rates for a pulse?
Adult 60 - 100
7 - 12 60 - 100
1 - 7. 80 - 120
Infants. 110 - 170
How do you check a pulse?
If it is regular - count for 30 seconds and multiply by 2.
If irregular - count for full 60 seconds.
If weak - do an apical pulse with a stethoscope over apex of heart, count for 60 seconds.
Slow heart rate, less than 60 bpm
Rapid heart rate - greater than 100 bpm.
How do Respirations occur?
When CO2 levels increase the medulla oblongata (in the center of brain stem) responds.
COPD - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Breathing is in response to decreased O2 levels.
DO NOT increase oxygen
Factors that increase Respiratory rate
Factors that decrease Respiratory rate
Characteristics of Rspirations
Rate - per minute (if no symptoms can count for 30 sec. X 2)
Rhythm - how even, regular intervals and depth.
Depth - amount in and out i.e. shallow
What is Blood Pressure?
Pressure against the walls of Arteries which carry blood throughout the body.
2 numbers in mmHg. What are they?
Systole - when the heart ventricles contract.
Diastole - between heartbeats (shows arteries resistance to blood flow)
5 Physiologic Factors for Control of Blood Pressure
1. Blood volume - kidneys regulate volume. > the vol. the ^ the BP.
2. Peripheral Resistance - constriction of arteriolar. > constr. ^ BP
3. Elasticity of artery walls.
4. Heart's pumping actions.
5. Blood viscosity - thickness of blood.
Factors increasing Blood Pressure
Factors that Decrease Blood Pressure
Medications that decrease Blood Pressure
Beta-Blockers - decrease heart rate & BP response of beta receptors in heart, arteries and vessels.
Diuretics - water absorption from the kidneys
Vasodilators - relax arteries
Calcium Channel Blockers - systemic vasodilation
How to take Blood Pressure measurement
Listen over brachial artery with stethoscope while decreasing slowly. Systolic - the first beat you hear is the blood flow against resistance until Diastolic - there is no longer any resistance.
Korokoff Sounds - 5 Phases
1. Tapping - Systolic
2. Soft swishing
3. Distinctive Tapping
5. No sound - Diastolic
Systolic - Diastolic = Pulse Pressure
Average 30 - 50 mm Hg
Average Blood Pressure by Ages
Infant - 3
3 - 6
6 - 13
13 - 19
Infant - 3 90/50
3 - 6. 94/56
6 - 13. 110/70
13 - 19. 120/80
Selecting BP Cuff
Width of the cuff should be 2/3 the size of the patient's arm.
Under what circumstances should you not use a patient's arm?
- if a pt has had a mastectomy on that side.
- if a pt has a shunt for dialysis