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Flashcards in Final - Lecture part Deck (109):

Depressor and erector muscles in dermis of birds

Depressor muscles:
During hot weather, depressor muscles press the feathers against the body to promote heat loss.
Erector muscles:
When a bird gets cold or does not feel well, it looks "fluffed" because erector muscles in the dermis elevate the body feathers to trap warm air near the body


Remiges & retrices

Both contour feathers typically covering a bird's body and constituting the flight feathers of the wings and tail.
Flight feathers in the wing
Tail feathers


Waterproofing for birds

Most birds possess the uropygial gland, or preen gland, located on the dorsal surface at the upper base of the tail (very large in aquatic bird species, but lacking in some parrots, ostriches, and a few other species).
The act of preening stimulates this gland to secrete an oily, fatty substance.
Using his/her beak the bird spreads this oil throughout its feathers to clean and waterproof them.


Stress bars

Also called fault bars
If a feather is stressed during its growth, even for a few hours, there is an interruption in its blood flow. This develops a fault or stress bar, which is characterized by a weakened area on the feather vane, where the barbs lack barbules.
Most common stressors are poor diet, thyroid disease or infection.


What tells you feathers are still growing?

During feather development, a growing feather is called a blood feather. Blood can be seen in the proximal part of the feather shaft during the entire growth phase.
Injury to a blood feather not only results in bleeding but can prevent a feather from developing normally until molted again.


Number of cervical vertebrae in birds

11 (parakeets) to 25 (swans) - in comparison mammals "only" have 7.


Support for tail feathers in birds

Birds have an average of 12 coccygeal vertebrae. The first few are mobile to allow movement of the tail feathers during flight. The rest are fused into a bony structure called PYGOSTYLE that supports the tail feathers


Bones of pelvic girdle of birds

Each side of pelvic girdle is made up of three bones that join where the leg attaches to the body:
1. ILIUM (relatively broad & fused to synsacrum)
2. & 3. ISCHIUM & PUBIS (thin and long; fused to the anterior ileum and directed rearward, parallel to backbone)
Distal ends of these three bones are NOT fused, providing room for abdomen and facilitating egg laying in hens.


Bones of pectoral girdle of birds

Pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of three pairs of bones
1. Coracoids
2. Scapulas
3. Clavicles (also called wishbones)
Coracoids and scapulas are joined on each side to form a depression called the glenoid cavity or triosseal canal, this is where the wing attaches to the body by forming a joint.
The clavicles keep a bird's shoulders separated by their position.


Flight muscles of birds

*large, superficial
*Origin: Sternum
*Insertion: underside of humerus
*depresses wing (downstroke)
*Origin: Sternum
*Insertion: top of humerus
*elevates wing (upstroke)


Hormone that regulates feather growth

The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland that secretes hormones regulating molting and the migratory urge.


The other name for gizzard

Muscular stomach


Bird poop

Bird poop is called mute (feces and urine together - black & white) or droppings
The consistency of the fecal matter and the color of the urate can give us clues about the health status of a bird. White color is a good sign.


Bird vocalization

Syrinx - the voice box of birds - is an enlargement of the trachea above the lungs & sternum
*contains muscles, air sacs, and vibrating membranes
*complexity of a bird's vocalizations depends on the number of muscles present in syrinx


Scale of reptiles

Beta keratin - rigid, found in scales
Scales are formed by epidermal folds in most reptiles
They vary in size and shape
The epidermis can form unique structures, such as crests, tubercles, spines, and dewlaps


Spectacle in reptiles

Also called brille
Snakes have modified scales (spectacles) that cover the eyes, instead of eyelids


What causes old skin to separate from new skin during ecdysis?

Ecdysis = shedding of skin (occurs with growth or in response to injury)
Exuvia = shed skin
Process is controlled by thyroid gland
Enzyme-containing lymph is secreted between old and new epidermal layers. The skin color dulls & spectacle opacifies. Lymph fluid is resorbed prior to ecdysis; reptile rubs against objects to get rid of old skin. Old skin is shed in pieces or in one large piece.


Why do amphibians not have to drink?

They have "drink patches", which are areas of increased permeability on their ventral surfaces. ]
This way they can absorb water directly from the environment (through the skin)


Where is the heart of a snake located?

Location varies in snakes according to species, but usually the heart is found at the junction of the FIRST AND SECOND THIRDS of the animal's body length.
Snake hearts are fairly mobile facilitating ingestion of large prey.


Three chambers in heart of amphibians

Two atria
One common ventricle


What separates oxygenated from non-oxygenated blood in amphibians?

The single ventricle is separated into three regions:
1. Cavum venosum
2. Cavum arteriosum
3. Cavum pulmonale
Pressure differences of outflow tracts and muscular ridge that partially separates cavum venosum and cavum pulmonale maintain separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood


Reptilian & amphibianblood cell analogous to neutrophils in mammals?



Name of terminal portion of lungs in reptiles and amphibians



Lack of vitamin A deficiency in turtles

Results in squamous metaplasia
Results in damage to the cornea and conjunctival tissues due to decreased tear production and bacterial and fungal infection.
Clinical signs: closed, swollen eyelids


What do amphibians/reptiles not have?

Some do not have urinary bladders
Their ureters empty into dorsolateral aspects of the urodeum
The cloaca is the common outflow tract for GI and urogenital tracts (in all reptiles and amphibians) and consists of three chambers:
coprodeum, urodeum, and proctodeum


In which of the reptiles are the vertebrae fused to the shell?

In turtles the vertebral column is fused to the carapace except for the neck and tail.
Carapace = top part of shell
Plastron = bottom part of shell


Vestigial pelvic limbs in reptiles

Some snake species have SPURS
Found on either side of the vent
Used in courtship behavior


Which species has a diffuse attachment of placenta?

Pigs and horses


Which animal has an increased incident of uterine infection postpartum?

Cattle (cow)


What animal has the longest gestation period?

Elephants with roughly 21 months


Which hormone keeps the uterus quiet?

Progesterone produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary.


Functions of colostrum

Supplies important nutrients to newborn
Has laxative effect to clear meconium
Transfer of passive immunity (through high levels of immunoglobulins or antibodies) until its own immune system matures
Helps develop the newborn's GI tract


Function of oxytocin

Oxytocin, released from the mother's pituitary gland, stimulates the myometrium to contract, which starts the labor process.


What do you call chromosomes occurring in pairs?

Diploid cells (two of each chromosome, one from each parent)


What are gametes?

A reproductive cell (sperm or ova) with only half the number of chromosomes, also called haploid.
Joins with one from the other sex to form a zygote during fertilization restoring the diploid chromosome number and determining the unique genetic makeup of the offspring.


What is oogenesis?

The production or development of an ovum


What does the cremaster muscle do?

The cremaster muscle is found in the male body, covering the testis. The muscle moves the testes, promoting healthy and mobile sperm. It also changes the testes' temperature, both lowering and raising the testes to control the temperature.


What is the pampiniform plexus?

The pampiniform plexus is a system of minute veins that progresses from the male abdomen to the posterior of the testes.
The function of the pampiniform plexus is to assist in the circulation of blood to and from the testes, and govern the temperature of the testes.


What do the sertoli cells do?

They nurture the developing spermatids by providing structural and metabolic support. They secrete important substances such as androgen-binding protein that concentrates testosterone in close proximity to the developing germ cells. They also help in maintaining an environment necessary for development and maturation with their tight junctions acting as blood-testis barrier. That is why they are being referred to as nurse cells.


Glans of what animal is covered with short spines?

The glans penis of the cat


Which animals have an os penis?



What is the significance of the bulbus glandis in canines?

The bulb of the glans is an enlargement toward the rear of the glans, which becomes engorged with blood and reaches its full size after ejaculation.
During breeding, the muscle contractions of the bitch's vagina and vulva clamp the penis in place. During this phase, also called the tie, the dogs should not be forcefully separated. Prostatic fluid is being pumped from the male to the female to ensure the sperm is pushed as far as possible into the female reproductive tract.
The erection of the bulb usually subsides within 15-20 minutes and the dogs will separate on their own.


Which animals have a sigmoid flexure?

Ruminants, such as:


Which animals have a more unpredictable heat?

Cats, as they are induced ovulators


What is the corpus luteum and its function?

When a female ovulates the egg will burst from the follicle. What is left of the follicle will become the corpus luteum.
The corpus luteum produces progesterone. Progesterone makes the lining of the uterus thick for implantation of the ovum and is necessary to sustain a healthy pregnancy (it keeps the uterus quiet). The corpus luteum produces progesterone until the placenta begins to take over progesterone production after about the 1st trimester.


Where does fertilization take place?

In the fallopian tubes


What species of animal is diestrus?

Diestrus meaning animals with two cycles per year, usually spring and fall


What does the parasympathetic nervous system do to the salivary glands?

Parasympathetic: Stimulation of this results in increased salivation (e.g. anticipation of eating?)
Just FYI:
Sympathetic: Stimulation of this (either through fear or pre-anesthetic drugs e.g.) produces "dry mouth"/decrease in saliva production


Which animal needs their teeth floated every so often and why?

The horse.
Depending on the particular horse's dentition, there may be uneven wear during mastication, creating sharp edges and points that can be painful. A horse's teeth continue to grow until they're about 15 years old, then the growth slows down.
So having your horse's teeth floated or rasped down at least once a year is advisable.


Flow of gastric material in a ruminant



Fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamin A - Promotes growth, the immune system, reproduction, and vision
Vitamin D - Essential for blood clotting and bone and tooth formation
Vitamin E - Important antioxidant
Vitamin K - Essential for the generation of clotting factors and many proteins made by the liver
Fat-soluble vitamins are stored for long periods of time in tissues. Excess is not excreted, making toxicity a possibility if high levels are consumed.


What is ileus of the GI tract?

Lack of movement of ingesta (ingesta moving too slowly inhibiting peristalsis).
A painful obstruction of the ileum or other part of the intestine.


How many upper incisors does a cow have?

None, they have dental pad, which is a flat, thick, connective-tissue structure on the maxilla opposite the lower incisors and canine teeth


Dental formula of the pig

Total number of teeth = 44
Dental formula:
I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M3/3


What is the function of the triceps brachii?

Extension of the forearm (antebrachium)/extends the elbow joint
Biceps brachii is the antagonist of the triceps brachii (it flexes the elbow joint)


Pertaining to muscle, what's a fixator?

A muscle that acts as a stabilizer of one part of the body during movement of another part.


Muscles of mastication



Muscles of the antebrachium

Extensor carpi radialis (extends the carpus)
Deep digital flexor (flexes the digit)


What muscles attach to the achilles tendon?

The gastrocnemius and the soleus (the calf muscles).
The Achilles tendon is fibrous tissue that connects the heel (calcaneus) to these two calf muscles.


What type of muscle is voluntary, striated?

Skeletal muscle


What is the basic contracting unit of muscle?



What is the motor unit of skeletal muscle?

The term motor unit is used to describe one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it innervates.
Each nerve fiber innervates (sends impulses to) more than one muscle fiber. The number of muscle fibers per nerve fiber determines how small a movement will result from a nerve stimulus.


What neurotransmitter is involved at the motor unit?

Within the end of a nerve fiber in a neuromuscular junction are tiny sacs called synaptic vesicles that contain this chemical neurotransmitter. When a nerve impulse comes down the fiber, it causes the release of it, which quickly diffuses across the synaptic space and binds to receptors on the sarcolemma. This starts the process that leads to the contraction of the muscle fiber.


What releases stored calcium in the muscle?

The sarcoplasmic reticulum


What structure connects muscles to bone?

(Bone to bone = ligament)


What enzyme is used to convert ADP to ATP?

Creatine phosphate


Incomplete glucose breakdown in anabolism results in what?

Lactic acid formation


What sets the pace for the cardiac cells of the heart?

Pacemaker cells, they set the "speed"


Sympathetic nervous stimulation causes the heart to do what?

Sympathetic fibers stimulate the heart to beat harder and faster as part of the "fight or flight response"


Parasympathetic causes the heart to do what?

Parasympathetic fibers inhibit cardiac function, causing the heart to beat more slowly and with less force.


Where would you find involuntary, non-striated muscle?

= Smooth muscle
Can be found in the walls of many internal organs, such as the stomach, intestines, uterus, urinary bladder,...


What do you call the tightly compacted cylinders in compact bone?

Haversian systems running lengthwise to the bone, arranged around a central Haversian canal containing blood and lymph vessels, as well as nerves supporting the osteocytes.


Examples of irregular shaped bones

Sesamoid bones (with the largest one being the patella)
Some strangely shaped skull bones


Red vs. yellow bone marrow

Red: Forms blood cells; majority of marrow found in young animals; small portion in older animals confined to specific locations, such as ends of some long bones and interiors of pelvic bones and sternum.
Yellow: Consists primarily of adipose connective tissue. Most common type in adult animals. Can revert back to red if body needs larger amount of blood cells


Joints with hyaline cartilage?

Articulating surfaces of long bones
Costal cartilages of ribs
Cartilages in nose, trachea, and larynx
Most of embryonic skeleton


What opening does the spinal cord pass through?

Spinal canal


The cornual process of the cow is part of what bone?

The frontal bone


Bones that warm and humidify your air?

Turbinates in the nose


Wings of the atlas

The atlas has two large, winglike transverse processes called the wings of the atlas (these can be palpated just behind the skull of most animals)
The first, C1, cervical vertebrae is called the atlas because, like the mythical figure Atlas who holds up the world, this vertebra "holds up" the head.


# of ribs of an animal that has 13 thoracic vertebrae




The coccyx, also known as the tailbone, is a small bone resembling a tail located at the bottom of the spine. It is composed of three to five coccygeal vertabrae or spine bones.



Bony segments of the sternum


Greater tubercle

The greater tubercle is a prominence of the humerus and is situated lateral to the head.


Point of elbow

Olecranon process
The large process on the upper end of the ulna that projects behind the elbow joint and forms the point of the elbow


Main weight-bearing bone of the forearm



Other name for carpus in the horse



What are the splint bones?

Metacarpal or metatarsal II and IV


How many metacarpals in cows?

Metacarpals III and IV are fused into a single bone
(same goes for the hindlimbs = metatarsals III and IV)


Most distal phalanx in the horse

Coffin bone


Largest process on the proximal head of the femur

Greater trochanter


Largest sesamoid bone



In what muscle/tendon is the patella located?

Quadriceps femoris
Patellar tendon, also called patellar ligament


Thigh muscle

Quadriceps femoris


Os cordis

The visceral bone in the heart of cattle and sheep that helps support the valves of the heart.


Ligaments inside the stifle joint

Cruciate ligaments


80% of dermis has what type of tissue?

Dense, irregular connective tissue


Central weight bearing pads of a dog's foot?

Metacarpal/Metatarsal pads


Functions of the anal sacs
Why do they need to be emptied sometimes?

Functions: Territory marking, tracking, lubrication during defecation
Usually a dog will empty their anal sacs when defecating, with today's diet though, the stool is sometimes not hard enough to do so. In that case we may need assist by expressing them. If they're not emptied every so often, they may develop abscesses, infections, impactions,...


Corium of the hoof

The corium is another term for the hoof's dermis: the middle soft tissue layer that connects the coffin bone to the rigid hoof capsule and contains the hoof's blood supply.


Where does the fertilized egg spend most of its time in the female bird?

In the large and muscular uterus (also called shell gland)
Here watery albumen, a hard external shell, and pigmentation is deposited


EXTRA CREDIT: Dental formula for cat

(I3/3 C1/1 P3/2 M1/1) x2


EXTRA CREDIT: Dental formula for dog

(I3/3 C1/1 P4/4 M2/3) x2


EXTRA CREDIT: Dental formula for horse

(I3/3 C1/1 P3-4/3 M3/3) x2


EXTRA CREDIT: (Triadan system) # of right upper canine



EXTRA CREDIT: (Triadan system) # of right lower second incisor



EXTRA CREDIT: (Triadan system) # of right upper fourth premolar



EXTRA CREDIT: (Triadan system) # of left lower second incisor



EXTRA CREDIT: (Triadan system) # of left upper third incisor



EXTRA CREDIT: (Triadan system) # of right upper first incisor in kitten