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Flashcards in MidTerm - Written part Deck (47):

Difference between macro- and microscopic

MACROSCOPIC: Also called gross anatomy. The study of body parts large enough to be seen without magnification, such as a lung, leg, or brain.
MICROSCOPIC: The study of anatomical parts too small to be seen with the unaided eye, such as cells and tissues.


Difference between sagittal, transverse and dorsal

SAGITTAL: Runs lengthwise, dividing the body into left and right parts that are not necessarily equal halves (if equal then it's called the median plane)
TRANSVERSE: Across the body, dividing it into cranial and caudal parts that are not necessarily equal.
DORSAL: Divides the body into dorsal and ventral parts that are not necessarily equal.


Difference between cranial and rostral

CRANIAL: Directional term meaning toward the head
ROSTRAL: Directional term meaning toward the tip of the nose. Generally only used to describe positions on the head, where the term cranial loses its meaning.


Difference between palmar and plantar

PALMAR: Caudal surface of the forelimb distal to carpus
PLANTAR: Caudal surface of the hind limb distal to tarsus


Difference between dorsal vs. ventral body cavity

DORSAL BODY CAVITY: Space in the skull and spinal column that contains the brain and spinal cord. The portion in the skull is called the cranium, and the portion in the spinal column is called the spinal canal.
VENTRAL BODY CAVITY: Large space in the body that is divided by the thin, sheetlike diaphragm muscle in the cranial thoracic cavity (chest) and caudal abdominal cavity (belly).


What lines the different body cavities?

PLEURA: The thin membrane in the thoracic cavity that covers the thoracic organs (the visceral layer of pleura) and lines the thoracic cavity (the parietal layer of pleura). A potential space between the two layers contains a small amount of lubricating fluid that allows the thoracic structures to smoothly slide over each other as they and the thorax itself move.
PERITONEUM: The thin membrane in the abdominal cavity that covers the abdominal organs (the visceral layer of peritoneum) and lines the abdominal cavity (the parietal layer of peritoneum). A potential space between the two layers contains a small amount of lubricating fluid that allows abdominal structures to smoothly slide over each other.


4 Body Tissues (plus example locations)

1. EPITHELIAL TISSUE: Collection of tissues that are made up of layers of cells that line and cover body surfaces. These cells may be single layered or multilayered and can regenerate quickly (e.g. ducts of mammary, sweat and salivary glands)
2. CONNECTIVE TISSUE: Made up of cells and extracellular substances that connect and support cells and other tissues. There are two categories of connective tissue, proper and specialized. Proper is subdivided into loose or dense and specialized into cartilage, bone and blood. (e.g. Adipose or fat, bone, cartilage)
3. MUSCLE TISSUE: Collection of tissues that support the body and enable it to move, thermoregulate, and transport materials. Some muscles may be controlled voluntarily, whereas others act involuntarily. (e.g. involuntary muscle incl. cardiac and smooth muscle; voluntary muscle incl. all of the skeletal muscles)
4. NERVOUS TISSUE: Collection of tissues that collect, process, and convey information. Sensory (afferent) nerves convey information about the body's surroundings to the brain, whereas motor (efferent) nerves send instructions from the brain to the body. Some nerve tissues, called mixed nerves, can perform both functions. (e.g. Brain, spinal cord, nerves)



State of chemical equilibrium maintained in the body by feedback and regulation processes in response to internal and external changes; the maintenance of balance in the body. The concept of homeostasis includes the many mechanisms that monitor critical levels and functions in the body and stimulate corrective actions when things stray from normal. By keeping important activities within relatively narrow ranges, the process of homeostasis helps maintain normal body structure, function, and therefore health.


Epithelial cell functions

1. Protects, covers, and lines (e.g. lines bladder, mouth, blood vessels, thorax, and all of the body cavities and ducts in the body)
2. Filters biochemical substances (protects underlying tissues by filtering)
3. Absorbs nutrients (e.g. epithelia that line the GI tract absorb nutrient molecules from gut, then place them into circulation)
4. Provides sensory input (e.g. epithelia on the tongue are sensitive to touch, temperature, and taste, info is then conveyed to the nervous system; also sight, sound and smell via eyes, ears and nasal passages)
5. Manufactures secretions (Glandular epithelial cells, e.g. Goblet cells - individual cells)
6. Manufactures excretions (Glandular epithelial cells, e.g. Goblet cells - individual cells)


Examples of an endocrine gland

Pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreas are all examples of endocrine glands.
Glands or cells that release (or secrete) their regulatory products (hormones) directly into the bloodstream. Endocrine glands control most metabolic functions.


What type of tissue is most abundant by weight?

Connective tissue
It's found everywhere in the body. Some organ systems, such as the skeletal and integumentary systems, are composed almost exclusively of connective tissue, whereas others, such as the neurological system, contains very little.


Primary function of a leukocyte

The main function of leukocytes is body defense.
They are also called white blood cells (WBC) and come in many different varieties, including basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. They may be granulated or non-granulated and are capable of amoebid motion.


What type of connective tissue is the nuchal ligament in the horse's neck?

The rubbery nuchal ligament is DENSE, REGULAR, ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE.
The nuchal ligament helps to raise the head in the horse. When the animal lowers its head to eat or drink, the ligament is stretched, like a spring under tension, it's "pre-loaded." Then, when the head is elevated, some of the energy stored in the ligament is used, lessening the strain on the neck muscles.


What type of cartilage is found in the ear?

Elastic cartilage
Also called yellow cartilage; similar to hyaline cartilage, except that it is more opaque and contains many elastic fibers. These fibers give elastic cartilage tremendous flexibility so that it can withstand repeated bending. It is found in the epiglottis of the larynx and in pinnae (the external ears) of animals.


Name the fluid portion of blood

The liquid matrix of blood, which contains proteins and suspended cells. Plasma also contains diffused gasses, electrolytes, and a variety of biochemicals.


Name the cellular components of blood

Erythrocytes (Red blood cells)
Leukocytes (White blood cells)
Thrombocytes (or platelets)


Mucous membrane

Or mucosae, line the organs that have connections to the outside environment. These organs are part of the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts and include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, colon, nasal passages, trachea, bladder, and uterus, to name a few.
The epithelial layer in mucous membranes is usually composed of either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium, and it covers a layer of loose connective tissue called the lamina propria. Another connective tissue layer, called the submucosa, usually connects the mucosa to underlying structures.


Why is it important for blood to clot?

Blood clotting, or coagulation, is an important process that prevents excessive bleeding when a blood vessel is injured. Platelets (a type of blood cell) and proteins in your plasma (the liquid part of blood) work together to stop the bleeding by forming a clot over the injury. Typically, your body will naturally dissolve the blood clot after the injury has healed.


Flat, grinding surface of molar teeth

Occlusal surface


Cutting edge of a sharp tooth's crown

Incisal edge


Surface of a lower tooth facing the tongue



Surface of a tooth facing the lips



Surface of an upper tooth facing the hard palate



Surface of a tooth facing the cheeks



Surface or edge facing toward the rostral end of mouth or toward the center (midline) for incisor teeth

Mesial (facing the opposite direction is called distal)


Opposite the head of the femur on the proximal end are large processes, where strong hip and thigh muscles attach. What is the name of the largest one?

Greater trochanter


Metacarpal bones of cattle

Feet of cattle are like horse feet split in two. Cattle walk on two toes. Accordingly, they have two metacarpal bones, bones III and IV, but these are fused into a single bone. A longitudinal groove running down the metacarpal bone clearly shows its two-bone origin, however.


Olecranon process

The large process on the proximal end of the ulna that forms the point of the elbow. The olecranon process is the site where the tendon of the powerful triceps brachii muscle attaches.


Foramen Magnum

The large hole in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord exits the skull.


Anaerobic metabolism

Non-oxygen dependent metabolism. The type of metabolism in muscle that occurs when the need for energy to produce muscular activity exceeds the available oxygen supply. Anaerobic metabolism is not as efficient as aerobic metabolism and results in the formation of lactic acid as a byproduct. Lactic acid can cause discomfort in muscle tissue and requires oxygen to be converted back to glucose.



A neurotransmitter associated with somatic nerves and with parasympathetic nervous system effects even though it is used in the preganglionic neuron in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; has a stimulatory effect on the GI tract, it increases secretions and muscle contractions in the esophagus, stomach, ruminant forestomachs, intestine, and colon.



The enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine.


Synaptic cleft

Physical gap between two communicating neurons or between a neuron and its target cell.



Cell membrane of a muscle cell
When nerve impulse reaches the end bulb of the motor nerve fiber acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) is released into the synaptic cleft and then binds to receptors on the surface of the sarcolemma. Through T tubules it gets into the interior of the muscle cell to reach the sarcoplasmic reticulum (for Ca++ release).


Sarcoplasmic reticulum

The organelle in a muscle cell that is equivalent to the ER of other cells. It stores calcium ions (Ca++) necessary to initiate the muscle contraction process. Release of Ca++ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum is stimulated by a nerve impulse. Once Ca++ is released into the sarcoplasm, it diffuses into the myofibrils and starts the contraction process.


Initiation of muscle relaxation

Sarcoplasmic reticulum begins pumping Ca++ back in again (pulling it out of the myofibrils), which causes the contraction to stop and the muscle returns to its original length. This is an active process and requires ATP.


Autonomic nervous system

The part of the nervous system that controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and endocrine glands automatically without conscious control; has motor and sensory branches.


Sympathetic nervous system

Part of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for the "fight or flight" response; also called the thoracolumbar system because of the location of the sympathetic nerves emerging from the thoracic and lumbar vertebral segments.


Parasympathetic nervous system

Part of the autonomic nervous system that is responsible for the "rest-and-restore response"; also called the cranio-sacral system because of the location of the parasympathetic nerves emerging from the brain stem and sacral vertebral segments.


Cardiac muscle

Striated, involuntary muscle that is found exclusively in the heart.
Cardiac muscle is influenced by the autonomic nervous system. It has one centrally located nucleus and intercalated disks that form special connections between the muscle branches.


Smooth muscle

Nonstriated, involuntary muscle having only one nucleus; the type of muscle found in soft internal organs and structures. Smooth muscle gets its name because its cells do not have a striped appearance under the microscope, like skeletal and cardiac muscle cells do. Smooth muscle is not under conscious control. Smooth muscle is found in the digestive tract, where it assists with the movement of food through the gut (peristalsis).


Skeletal muscle

Striated, voluntary, multinucleated muscle that enables conscious movement of an animal; the type of muscle that moves the bones of the skeleton and is under conscious control.



The basic contracting unit of skeletal muscle. It consists of the actin and myosin filaments between Z lines in a muscle cell. Myofibrils are composed of many sarcomeres stacked up end to end.


Functions of the abdominal muscles

1. Support the abdominal organs
2. Help flex the back
3. Participate in various functions that involve straining
4. Play a role in respiration


Name the abdominal muscles from most superficial to deepest

1. Rectus abdominis muscle
2. External abdominal oblique muscle
3. Internal abdominal oblique muscle
4. Transversus abdominis muscle


First process in inflammation

Inflammation begins with a 5- to 10-minute period of vasoconstriction, followed by a sustained period of vasodilation. The initial constriction occurs in the small vessels of the injured tissue and aids in the control of hemorrhaging. Histamine and heparin molecules subsequently are released from mast cells, which stimulate vasodilation and increase permeability of the capillaries. Blood flow to the area is increased, which in turn causes the clinical signs of heat and redness. It also increases the supplies of oxygen and nutrients to the active cells of the damaged tissue.


Healing by first intention

Wounds that heal via first intention are those in which the edges of the wound are held in close apposition. These wounds may be superficial scratches or wounds that have been sutured or held closed with special bandages. During first-intention healing, the skin forms a primary union without the formation of granulation tissue or significant scarring.
(Second-intention healing occurs in wounds in which the edges are separated from one another, in which granulation tissue forms to close the gap, and in which scarring results).