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Y2 T1 Biology 228 > Final Text > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Text Deck (45):
1

Laws of Thermodynamics

First: energy cannot be created or destroyed
second: with every energy transfer, some useful energy is lost-entropy increases

2

Energy exists in two forms

kinetic and Potential

3

If a reaction results in loss of potential energy it is ______ or _______

spontaneous of exergonic(many but not all expend heat:exothermic)

4

_______ reactions require an energy input to proceed

endergonic(many but not all absorb heat:endotherm)

5

entropy

form of energy that is incapable of doing further work
ex: burning wood

6

the higher the difference of CO2 content entering and leaving a chamber, the higher an estimate of ____

NPP

7

residence time

the mean time that energy persists in a trophic level

8

______(Mineral) strongly affects lake productivity

phosphorous

9

autochthonous carbon production

produced from within
-from photosynthesis
-dominate in large lakes

10

allochthonous carbon production

originates outside system
-more apparent in small water bodies

11

two general types of biogeochemical cycles

1.Gaseous(Nitrogen and oxygen)-main pools are oceans and atmos
2.Sedimentary(phosphorous)-major pool in the lithosphere: soil, rocks, and minerals

12

Sedimentary cycles

all have rock phase and a salt solution phase

13

_____ is a hybrid of gaseous and sedimentary cycles

sulphur-major pools in earths crust and atmosphere

14

All cycles share three aspects

inputs, internal cycling,outputs

15

dryfall

nutrients carried by airborne particles and aeosols

16

precipitation also washes in large ammounts of nutrients: this is called

wetfall

17

Throughfall

rain dripping through canopy

18

stemflow

rain runs down stems and picks up nutrients deposited as dust on leaves
=richer in Ca, Sodium(NA), potassium(K)

19

pyromineralization

ash from fire is mineralized in soil

20

Net ecosystem productivity

is the difference between the rates of C uptake in photosynthesis and the C loss in respiration of both autotrophs and heterotrophs

21

Largest source of Carbon is

CO2 in the air or water

22

Global Carbon cycle

is usually considered gaseous, its large reservoirs in all spheres make it(like sulphur) a hybrid cycle
-Earth contains 100 Million Gigatonnes of Carbon
-Active C pool is an estimated 55000 GT
-stuck in sedimentation = 10,000 GT
-Oceans-Air interaction is a major site for C exchange
-ocean sedimentation holds 38,000 GT

23

Diffusion

transfer nutrients from water to air and so forth

24

_____is the biggest CO2 sink

Ocean

25

warming temperatures could turn C sinks into _____

sources

ex:tundra

26

Nitrogen Cycle

-available in two inorganic forms: Nitrate and Ammonium
.1st route: Enters ecosystem through atmospheric deposition(wetfall or dryfall)
.2nd route: nitrogen fixation-

27

Atmos is almost __% nitrogen

80

28

Biological fixation

is performed by symbiotic bacteria living in mutualistic association with plants, as well as by some lichens, free-living bacteria, and cyanobacteria. High energy needed is attained by photosynthetic partner.

29

_____ bacteria are known as major N fixers

rhizobium

30

volatilization

NH3(Ammonia) in alkaline or neutral soils where there is less H return to atmosphere

31

ammonification

NH3 is released in microbrial decomposition

32

In Nitrogen cycle the largest pool is

atmosphere

33

dentrification

Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process of nitrate reduction (performed by a large group of heterotrophic facultative anaerobic bacteria) that may ultimately produce molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products

34

chemical fertilizers strongly affect _____ cycle

nitrogen

35

Phosphorous Cycle

-a truly sedimentary cycle
-only occurs in minute ammounts in atmos
-P is lost via water and is not returned
-Not much P around so if it is released huge growth spurts occur
-occurs a lot in lakes that receive P-rich wastes
-main pools are phosphate deposits and apatite rock
-major process regulating P supply to plants is internal cycling from organic to inorganic forms

36

Not much ___ around so if it is released huge growth spurts occur a lot in fresh lakes that receive __-rich wastees

P

37

Main pools of P are _____ rock and phosphate deposits

apatite

38

3 states of P in aaquatic system cycle

1.particulate
2.disolved organically bound phosphates
3. inorganic phosphate

39

mUCH OF P is locked in ______ and bottom sediments

hypolimnion

40

Most P is held in _____,____,and _____ in that order

soils,ocean,mineable rock

41

Global P cycle _____ significant atmospheric pool

has no

42

Sulphur Cycle

-hybrid
-long term sedimentary cycle, short term gaseous in global circulation
-enters atmosphere through anthropogenic and natual sources: release through decomp, volcanoes, ocean surface
-Enters atmos as hydrogen sulphide
-Most enters system through human extraction, mining

43

Sulphur enters atmos as _________ and leaves as ______ in the form of acid precipitation

hydrogen sulphide
sulphur dioxide

44

______ is often found overlying coal deposits

sulphur

45

Oxygen Cycle

-has a gaseous cycle, atmos is major pool
-