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1

define ecology

the scientific study of relationships between organisms and their environment

2

define Resources

consumed by an organism

3

define conditions

influence an organism but are not consumed

4

define hazard

include factors that can only affect an organism negatively
ex: substances(DDT)
Events(natural disasters)

5

Who coined the term Ecology?

Ernst Haeckel

6

Ecosystem?

Units of nature in which organisms interact with each other and with their surroundings

7

Ecological Hierarchy?7

Individual-Population-community-Ecosystem-Landscape-Biome-Biosphere

8

population?

is a group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at a given time

9

community?

collectively, all populations of all species lving and interacting within an ecosystem

10

Landscape?

an area of land(or water;seascape if marine) composed of a patchwork of ecosystems
-ecosystems linked by dispersal of organisms and exchange of materials & energy.

11

Biome?

Broad-scale regions in which landscape is dominated by similar ecosystems.

12

Biosphere? Global Abiotic spheres?

the narrow interface at Earths surface that contains and supports life.
-Including Global Abiotic spheres: Atmosphere, Hydrosphere, and lithosphere(solid ground and soil)

13

Fitness?

the relative number of offspring that survive to reproduce

14

Asexual Reproduction(4)

offspring are always genetically identical clones of the parent.
Binary Fission: (Paramecium) simply splitting in half
Budding: (Freshwater Hydras) a bud pinches off as a new individual.
Parthenogenesis:(Wingless female aphids)(Crayfish)(Komodo Dragon) ovum develops into an organism without fertilization.
Plants: Stolons, rhizomes, apoximosis(type of parthenogenesis)

15

Budding?

Asexual reproduction where a bud pinches off as a new individual: Freshwater Hydras

16

Parthenogenesis?

Asexual Repro where the ovum develops into an organism without fertilization.
Wingless female aphids, Crayfish, Komodo Dragon.

17

Binary Fission?

Asexual repro simply splitting in half: Paramecium

18

Apomictic Plants?

Produce more but smaller seeds

19

Good and Bad about Asexual reproduction?

Allows rapid population growth yet little to no genetic variability

20

Dioecious?

Unisexual Plants

21

Hermaphroditic Plants?

2 ways
1.) Bisexual(perfect) flowers with both male(stamen) and female(carpels) organs ex: Lillies
2.) Monoecious: with separate male and female flowers on the same plant(Imperfect because non matching flowers like Dioecious) ex: Birch

22

Simultaneous Hermaphrodites?

Mating occurs for both parties in both female and male ways.

23

Stamen?

Plant male reproductive organ

24

Carpels?

Plant female reproductive organ.

25

Monoecious?

Plant with separate male and female flowers on the same plant. ex: birch.

26

Sequential Hermaphrodites?

Molluscs in gastropoda(snails and slugs) and Bivalvia(clams and mussels)= undergo sex change as they grow larger,typically changing from male to female. unbalanced population ratio may stimulate sex change(parrot fish).
Jack-in-the-pulpit(plant) may produce male flowers one year, asexual the next, and then female flowers. The high cost of creating female flowers necessitates this change.

27

Outcrossing?

pollen from one individual fertilizes the egg of another.

28

Autogamy?

self-fertilization, an extreme of inbreeding.

29

Monogamy?

involving a pair bond between one male and female.
extra-pair copulation can occur with both members seeking one other mate each.

30

Polygamy(2 forms)

1.Polyandry-severall males(sand-pipers)
2.polygyny-severall females

31

sexual dimorphism

why males and females of a different species differ in size, colour, and ornamentation.

32

Intrasexual selection

male to male or female to female competition for mates

33

Intersexual selection

typically involves differential attractiveness of one sex to the other.

34

assortative mating

the female selects a mate based upon specific phenotypic traits.

35

Coevolutionary arms-race?

some species have intersexual conflict in which the female will resist and must be forced into copulation. So the armsrace begins where the males and females fight the gain the uperhand in either mating or not. EX: Waterstriders.

36

males aggregate in groups on communal courtship arena's or ______?

leks

37

Reproductive Investment?

includes costs of care and nourishment as well as costs of producing offspring.

38

altricial?

their young are born or hatched in a helpless condition and require much parental care.

39

precocial?

young have longer gestation period so they are at a more advanced stage.

40

semelparity

an organism sacrifices future prospects by concentrating its energy on one suicidal reproductive act.

41

Iteroparity?

the strategy where an organism has repeated reproduction events over its lifetime.

42

niche gestalt?

describes vegetation profile associated with the breeding territory of a species.

43

Trillium Cernum?

releases seeds with oil rich bodies attached called elaiosomes. This acts as a bribe to and to drag the seeds underground so that they have a good chance of success.

44

Modular organism?

develops into a unit of construction which unlike a unitary organism becomes many repeated modules adding on leafs and buds throughout its lifetime to active growth spots called meristems. May have asexual shoots or suckers that may be attached or live independently.

45

Genet?

is a genetically distinct, free living organism that arises from a fertilized egg.

46

Ramet?

is a module that is produced asexually by a genet and is capable of independent existence. Whether attached or not the Ramet is genetically identical to their Genet.

47

Why does modularity complicate population study?

because there are 2 levels of population structure.
1.) the genetic individual(genet)
2.) the module(ramet)

48

Name 8 different population scales?

1. Worldwide
2. continental
3. Region
4. Physiographic area
5. cluster
6. locality
7. colony
8. clump

49

Metapopulation?

the collective of subpopulations

50

Abundance reflects 2 factors:

1. the area over which a population occurs
2. population density

51

quadrats?

sampling units that are generally square and vary in size.

52

Mark-Recapture?

Sampling method which involves capturing, counting and recapturing to create a population estimate.

N(population)= n(captured in 2nd attempt) X M(known number of animals) / R(recaptured animals)

53

Abundance-Indices?

cannot estimate absolute abundance, but a series of values collected from the same area over many years reveals abundance trends.

54

Populations have 3 ecologically important age classes?

1. pre-productive
2. reproductive
3. post-reproductive

55

Age class distribution in plants?2

1. Establishing populations have many saplings but few larger individuals, as in a balsam fur population on the shore of lake superior in Ontario.
2. Mature populations are dominated by mature trees that inhibit seedling establishment and sapling growth, as in oak. These trees dominate until there deaths.

56

intrinsic rate of increase?

r, instantaneous per capita growth rate

57

r=0

no population change

58

r<0

population declines

59

r>0

population increases

60

Reindeer

Exponential Growth example: 4 males and 22 females introduced in 1911 to the island of St.Paul in Alaska, By 1940's, its numbers had grown to over 2000.

61

Trumpeter Swan

Exponential Growth example: largest bird in N.A, re-introduced 3722 in 1968, 23647 by 2000.

62

Geometric Model?

instead of exponential model
- describes growth over discrete time intervals(often a year), whereas an exponential model uses a continuous time axis.

63

Life Table?

quantifies mortality and survival in different age classes(cohorts) of a population.

64

Cohort?

Group of individuals born at the same time

65

Life Table explained

x=
nx=
lx=
dx=
qx=

X=Age class In years

nx= number on individuals from original cohort that are alive at the beginning of a specified age class(x).

lx= Survivorship value, the probability at birth of an individual surviving to any given age.

dx= the number dying during that time interval

qx= age-specific mortality rate, the number of individuals that died during any given time interval(dx) divided by the number alive at the beginning of that interval(nx).

66

Dynamic Life table

Regular grey squirrel one cohort

67

dynamic composite(time specific) life table

based on individuals born over several periods
ex: 2009-2011

68

2 Most common graphs of life tables are?

1. Mortality Curve(qx)
-age specific mortality rates(qx), age class or developmental stage
- Not usually log-scale
2. survivorship curve(lx)
-Usually Log-scale
-lx on y-axis, time or age class(x) on x-axis

69

Plant mortality curves assume various patterns, depending partly on whether the plant is ____ or _____.

Annual, Perennial

70

Survivorship curves?3

1. When most individuals live out their life span, survivorship is high over most of their lives, with heavy mortality at the end. Strongly Convex(ex: mammals including humans.

2. If survivorship stays constant with age, the relationship is linear. (Ex: adult birds, rodents, some reptiles, and some herbaceous perennials.

3. If mortality is high in early life the curve is concave. Most common in nature; most individuals don't survive past first age class, yet those who do have low mortality rate after.(ex: fish, invertebrates, and many plants, including most trees.)

71

What is the most common Survivorship curve in nature?

Type 3: If mortality is high in early life the curve is concave. Most common in nature; most individuals don't survive past first age class, yet those who do have low mortality rate after.(ex: fish, invertebrates, and many plants, including most trees.)

72

Which Survivorship curve do humans fall Under?

1. When most individuals live out their life span, survivorship is high over most of their lives, with heavy mortality at the end. Strongly Convex(ex: mammals including humans.

73

Crude Birth rate?

number of births in a time interval for every 1000 individuals in a population

74

age-and sex-specific birthrate(bx)

mean number of females born to a female in particular age group

75

gross reproductive rate

the mean number of females born to a female over her lifetime, assuming all females survive to maximum age.

76

net reproductive rate(R0)

the mean number of females born to a female over her lifetime, taking the probability of a female surviving to a specific age into account.

Estimated using fecundity table
To adjust for mortality, we multiply bx values by the corresponding lx values for each age class. The resulting value of lxbx gives the mean number of females born in each age class, adjusted for survivorship.

Values of lxbx are summed over all reproductive ages to estimate net reproductive rate.

77

fecundity table

lx=
bx=
lxbx=
R0=

incorporates the survivorship column(lx), from the life table along with the age-and sex-specific birthrates(bx).

To adjust for mortality, we multiply bx values by the corresponding lx values for each age class. The resulting value of lxbx gives the mean number of females born in each age class, adjusted for survivorship.

Values of lxbx are summed over all reproductive ages to estimate net reproductive rate(R0).

78

R0(zero)

net reproductive rate

79

a population with a stationary age structure has a net reproductive rate(R0) equal to____.

1

80

generation time(Tc) equation + definition?

the mean time between a female being born and reproducing.

summing lengths of time to reproduction for the entire cohort, devided by the total offspring=

Tc= x(lxbx)/sum of lxbx

81

logistic growth

S-shaped model= As population density increases, interactions occur among its members-interactions that may regulate growth.

82

The exponential growth model assumes two things?

1.) essential resources are unlimited
2.) the environment is constant, with no seasonal or annual variations that might influence birth and or death.

83

demographic stochasticity

Random year-to-year variation in birth and death rates due to factors intrinsic to the population

84

Environmental Stochasticity

random variation in extrinsic factors such as temperature, precipitation, and disturbances such as fire and drought.

85

Resilience?
Measure of Resilience?

the rate at which it returns to an equilibrium level after a disturbance.

Return rate= the time required for the population to establish equilibrium size.

86

Resistance

the tendency to remain unchanged(maintain equilibrium) when faced by disturbance.

87

r-strategists have ___ resilience.

Options: High, Low, Medium

high

88

Population Cycles(oscillations)

Fluctuations that are more regular then we would expect by chance

89

Stable limit cycle

population size fluctuates around K in a regular manner between upper and lower limits.

90

Damped Oscillations

where fluctuations decrease over time.

91

(1) the bottom-up model
(2) the top-down model
(3) the social behavioural model

(1) wherein food availability is the major driver

(2) in which predation and disease(including parasites) are primarily responsible.

(3) in which oscillations are attributed to interactions such as aggressive territorial behaviour and infanticide.

92

Explain Logistic growth

Logistic growth of a population slows as it nears its carrying capacity. In response to limits imposed by the environment, negative feedback curtails population increase. Intraspecific(within species) interactions among individuals, including competition and social behaviour.

93

Intraspecific Interactions(2 types)

(within species) interactions among individuals, including competition and social behaviour. Density dependant meaning their effect varies with population size, intensifying as population reaches K

Scramble & Contest Competition

94

Interspecific

(between species) interactions such as competition, predation, and mutualism can also be density dependant and may also play a role in regulating populations.

95

Density Dependence:

Within-species regulating is linked to population density. Slows population growth by increasing the death rate, decreasing birth rate, or both.

96

Scramble competition
Exploitation

Intraspecific Competition:

limited resources are shared by individuals, all of which experience depressed growth as competition intensifies.

Exploitation is a part of scramble which features no interactions between competitors, but reduces available forage.

97

Contest competition

intraspecific:

dominant individuals claim enough resources for themselves while denying others a share.

Interference: Interfering with others directly

98

density-dependant growth

an inverse relationship between population density and individual growth.

Ex: white clover

99

self thinning

The decline in density and increase in survivor biomass caused by density dependant mortality.

Common in sessile animals and plants

100

Density- dependence affects fecundity

for indeterminate species can cause change in body size, time to reproduce.

101

pheromones

chemicals that facilitate communication
pheromones released may determine physiological and behavioural changes that can continue over generations.

102

breeding dispersal

whether or not offspring take over, share or leave there home territory.

103

pre-emption

plants that capture space at the expense of others

104

resource depletion zones

areas of reduced resources in the vicinity of their leaf canopies and root systems.

105

root grafts(unions)

practiced by Over 150 woody species

intraspecific parasitism or cooperative interaction=

possibility of sharing minerals and carbohydrates among neighbors.
ex: Jack Pine

106

Factors that are density-independent

temp, precipitation, and natural disturbances. Can be vital, yet do not regulate population.

107

Populations that are _____ affected by density-independent often exhibit relatively weak density-dependant regulation.

strongly

108

Populations that are Strongly affected by density-independent often exhibit _____ density-dependant regulation.

weak

109

competitive exclusion

loss of one population as a result of competition

110

unstable equilibrium

the species is initially more abundant inhibits growth of the other by interspecific competition more then it is inhibits its own growth by intraspecific competition.
Outcome depends on initial densities!

111

priority effect

In ecology, a priority effect is the impact that a particular species can have on community development due to prior arrival at a site.

112

stable equilibrium

neither species can achieve a density at which it can exclude the other.

113

Lotka-Volterra Model

3 different kinds of paramecium were used:
1.P. caudatum
2.P. aurelia
3.P. bursaria

aurelia and caudatum in isolation both showed logistic growth. When put together Aurelia excluded caudatum. Yet when bursaria and caudatum were placed together they coexisted because there was no interspecific competition as caudatum fed on suspended bacteria and bursaria fed on bacteria at the bottom of tube.

114

3 types of protozoan Paramecium.

Bursaria, caudatum, aurelia

115

removal experiments

researchers remove a competitor and examine the response of the "target" species.

116

transplant experiments

potential competitors are removed from some plots and added to others, leading to varying relative densities of two or more species. If the total densities of both species stay constant then the study is called a replacement series.

117

competitive exclusion(gause's) principle

complete competitors cannot coexist.
1. competitors have identical, unchanging requirements for a limiting resource.
2. abiotic factors are constant
3. no factor other then the shared resource prevents either population from reaching its carrying capacity.

118

competitive exclusion ____ happens in nature

rarely

119

Niche and n-dimensional hypervolume(Hutchinson)

response to the totality of all factors(abiotic, Biotic) in its environment.

and

the niche is a functional "space" occupying an indefinite number of dimensions.

Niche dimensions: food, habitat, light, humidity, temperature, ph.

120

fundamental vs. realized niche

the full range of environmental factors within which it can survive, grow, and reproduce.
vs.
that portion of its fundamental niche that a species occupies in the presence of interacting species.

ex: cattails

121

niche overlap

If two or more species use a portion of the same resource simultaneously-be it habitat , or food, or light.

122

Jack Pine is an example of ____ type of Niche Breadth.

generalist, wide for substrate, yet specialist for high light.

123

Niche Breadth

its tolerance range for one or more dimensions is describes as broad or narrow.

If a species has a broad range then it is "generalist"

If a species has narrow range then it is specialist.

124

High altitude species are more likely to be ____ in Niche Breadth.

generalists.

125

niche compression

contraction of the fundamental niche in the presence of a competing species.

126

competitive release

occurs when a species expands its niche in the absence or reduced presence of competitors.

127

allelopathy

individuals release compounds that deter the growth of neighbors.

Ex: Black walnuts

128

amensalism

an interaction in which only one individual is harmed.

129

Chesson's "Storage effect"

as an alternative explanantion for coexistence.

Populations are buffered against the negative impact of interspecific competition in unfavourable years by producing more offspring and/or accumulating more biomass in long-lived individuals in favourable years.

130

environmental gradient

abiotic factors change along a continuum rather then in abrupt shifts.

131

resource partitioning

animals may eat different kinds and sizes of food, or forage at different times or in different areas, minimizing niche overlap and the potential for competition.

132

niche differentiation

evolution of differences in resources used or in tolerance for non-resource factors.

133

Character Displacement

the process whereby differences in genetically controlled traits emerge from the selective force of interspecific competition(and other interactions).

Facilitating resource partitioning via character displacement, interspecific competition reduces niche overlap and promotes coexistence.

Ex: differences in root types and canine teeth size in cats.

134

ecomorphology

The use of morphological and physiological traits as an indirect indicator niche dimensions.

135

niche conservatism

retention of niche-related ecological traits over time.

136

limited similarity(Hutchinson)

ecologically similar species can coexist only if they have evolved sufficient differences in their morphological traits to allow niche separation.

137

Pioneer of niche concept

G.E. Hutchinson

138

Competitive Mutualism

if two species do not compete with each other they may both benefit from each others prescience if each competes with the others competitor.

139

Predation(biophages)

interaction in which an organism eats another living organism in whole or in part.

140

biophages

predators that consume living organisms
-agents of mortality
-potential to regulate the population numbers of their prey
-influences evolution of predator=prey species.

141

saprophages

consuming dead tissues

142

Predation types

1. Carnivory: consumption of animal tissue
2. herbivory: consumption of plant or algal tissue
3. omnivory: consumption of both

143

Carnivores are also called?2 words

True Predators: If they completely consume prey

144

name of seed predators?
name of plankton predators?

granivores
planktivores

145

Two exceptions: 2 specific herbivore types that act as True Predators

granivores
planktivores

146

Parasitoids vs Parasites

Parasites: as intestinal worms, feed on their prey while it is alive, but their effects are non lethal.

Parasitoids: are insects that lay their eggs in or on body of their host, when the larvae hatch they eat the host body tissue, and unlike other internal parasites they ultimately cause death.

147

Lotka-Volterra predation model

uses two equations to quantify how each population functions as a density-dependant regulator of the other.

Predators affect the growth of their pray by affecting density-dependant mortality

Prey regulate predator population by affecting density-dependant fecundity.

148

Predator Growth reflects two distinct predator responses to changing prey density...

1. A functional response= involves a change in the per capita rate of prey consumption with prey density. Predators growth depends on how many prey are captured.

2. A numerical Response= involves a change in predator reproduction with prey density.

149

type 1 predator response(functional) and Ex

the prey consumed per predator increases linearly with increasing prey density, predation rate is constant and independent of prey density.
-type 1 animals do not just commit part of their time budget to predation but can do multiple activities at once including migration.

Ex: Filter feeders constant flow rate, the rate of prey capture is a direct function of the prey density per unit of water.

150

type 2 predator response(functional)

prey consumed per predator increase at a decreasing rate to a maximum. Expressed as a proportion of prey density, predation rate is declines continuously with increasing prey density.

-More common in terrestrial predators
-type 2(unlike type 1) needs to share time budget in order to cover all factors of life that cannot be done together.

Why does type 2 curve level off?
.One reason is time budget
.As more prey are captured, the total handling time reaches capacity while the preys growth continues to increase. At high prey densities, the predator cannot process prey any faster. So predator continues at maximum rate while prey continues to grow.

151

type 3 predator response(functional) and ex

-most complex
-common in generalists that consume many species
-at high prey density type 3 resembles type 2 and for the same reason: increased handling time at high prey consumption rates prevents a future increase in rate.
-However predation rate is much lower then in type 2 response at low prey density and increases sigmoidal(s shaped) fashion.
-Expressed as a proportion of prey-density, predation rate rises to a maximum and then declines to an asymptote.
-Type 3 has most potential to regulate prey species
-Ex: bay-breasted warblers consuming spruce budworm

152

3 Contributing Factors to Type 3 dependant population regulation

1.) Availability of cover as a refuge
-Smaller population means more chance of survival in refuge.
2.) Search Image
-a way to recognize a species(using visual, auditory, olfactory, or other cues) as suitable prey.
-when a new species enter the area of common species is scarce in numbers
3.) Switching or frequency-dependant predation
-a generalist predator turns to an alternative, more abundant prey
-Although a predator may strongly prefer certain prey, it may switch to more abundant species that provide more profitable hunting.
-Food preferences influence how abundant a prey must be before a predator switches.

153

3 Types of functional response

1.) the prey consumed per predator increases linearly with increasing prey density, predation rate is constant and independent of prey density.
-type 1 animals do not just commit part of their time budget to predation but can do multiple activities at once including migration.

Ex: Filter feeders constant flow rate, the rate of prey capture is a direct function of the prey density per unit of water.

2.) prey consumed per predator increase at a decreasing rate to a maximum. Expressed as a proportion of prey density, predation rate is declines continuously with increasing prey density.

-More common in terrestrial predators
-type 2(unlike type 1) needs to share time budget in order to cover all factors of life that cannot be done together.

Why does type 2 curve level off?
.One reason is time budget
.As more prey are captured, the total handling time reaches capacity while the preys growth continues to increase. At high prey densities, the predator cannot process prey any faster. So predator continues at maximum rate while prey continues to grow.

3.) -most complex
-common in generalists that consume many species
-at high prey density type 3 resembles type 2 and for the same reason: increased handling time at high prey consumption rates prevents a future increase in rate.
-However predation rate is much lower then in type 2 response at low prey density and increases sigmoidal(s shaped) fashion.
-Expressed as a proportion of prey-density, predation rate rises to a maximum and then declines to an asymptote.
-Type 3 has most potential to regulate prey species
-Ex: bay-breasted warblers consuming spruce budworm

154

Bay-Breasted Warblers example of...

Example of both Type 3 functional response and numerical response

-At first the response is aggregative. More nesting pairs enter the area, increasing the density of breeding territories. After time lag, reproduction increases.

Total Prey consumed= number of predators(numerical response) X prey consumed per predator(functional response).

155

Numerical response vs. Functional

A functional response quantifies the change in a predators per capita consumption, whereas a numerical response involves a change in predator numbers.
-As prey density increases, predator numbers often increase, after a time lag. The delay varies but it reflects the fact that numerical response involves one or both of two processes that cannot occur instantaneously: 1.) predator reproduction, 2.) predator dispersal into areas of high prey density(aggregative response).

156

Numerical Response: 2 Processes

As prey density increases, predator numbers often increase, after a time lag. The delay varies but it reflects the fact that numerical response involves one or both of two processes that cannot occur instantaneously: 1.) predator reproduction, 2.) predator dispersal into areas of high prey density(aggregative response).

157

Aggregative Response

The preference for consumers to spend most of their feeding time in patches containing the highest density of prey.

158

intraguild predation

among members of a guild, a group of species that have a similar ecological function.

159

Guild?

a group of species that have a similar ecological function.

160

Cannibalism is an example of ____ whereas Intraguild predation is an example of _____.

Interspecific or Intraspecific

intraspecific, interspecific

161

Optimal Foraging Theory

the theory that natural selection favours efficient foragers, that is, individuals that maximize their energy or nutrient gain per unit of foraging effort.

-Time and energy must be given to many activities including allocation of defence, searching for mates, or caring for young.

162

Predator time budgets

T= total foraging time
divided into 2 activities
1.) Ts=Searching
2.) Th=handling
E=net energy gained

Profitability of the prey species=
E/Th

Ts is an important factor in determining type of prey

163

coevolution

the joint evolution of two or more non-interbreeding species with a close ecological relationship and involving reciprocal selective pressures is called coevolution.

164

Red Queen Hypothesis- Leigh Van Valen

"Now here you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place." - So it is with predator-prey in coevolution arms race.

165

anti-predator defences(6)

1. Chemical defences
2. Colouration
-Cryptic colouration: blends in with environment
-Flashing colouration: display of highly visible colour patches when disturbed or put to flight
-Warning colouration
3. Mimicry
-Batesian mimicry: evolved to look like an inedible species or toxic species
-Mullerian mimicry: several toxic or unpalatable species evolve to resemble each other. Similar colouration makes predators avoid the colour all together
4. Structural defences: Protective armour
5. Behavioural defences
-alarm calls
-distraction displays
-group living
6. Reproductive traits:
-Predator satiation:providing predator with excess foods

166

Anti Predator defences are either constitutive(1) or induced(2).

1. Fixed traits such as object resemblance or warning colouration
or
2. brought about by the presence of predators, such as behavioural defences.

167

Predation Strategies: 3

1. Ambush
2. Stalking
3. Pursuit

168

Aggressive mimicry and ex

evolving to resemble their prey, predators save energy by inducing their prey to approach them.
ex: Alligator Snapping Turtle

169

compensatory growth

production of biomass that may equal or even exceed the lost tissue.(plants)
-compensatory growth should only occur in species that experience herbivory seasonally or intermittently(as with migration) allowing recovery.

170

____(tree species) can survive late season defoliation.
____(tree species) cannot

Balsam Fir- Late season buds/budding
Conifers-Cannot respond quickly enough

171

Bark beetles may introduce lethal pathogens, Elm bark beetles carry a fungal agent of ____.

Dutch Elm Disease

172

Plant defences

1. Structural defence=
-hairy leaves, thorns, and spines.
cell walls strengthened with lignin
2. Chemical=Main defence
-Secondary metabolites- chemicals not involved in basic plant metabolism
-Alternative to immune system
-produce three classes of N-based compounds
.alkaloids...morphine
.terpenoids...latex
.phenolics...aromatic compounds
3. Herbivore satiation
-mast reproduction
4. Signalling
-calls for predators of herbivores to come
-systematic acquired resistance(SAR) alerts other parts of plants to acquire resistance

173

3 tier system of trophic level interaction ex

Plants-->Snowshoe hares-->Lynx
bottom-up regulation or top-down regulation

174

symbiosis

two or more organisms of different species living together in close and prolonged association.

175

mutualistic symbiosis

benefits both parties involved

176

are the affects of symbiosis positive or negative?

Trick question: can be both

177

parasitism

one individual benefits at the expense of the other.

178

some relationships that involve parasitism have evolved to the point where the host now benefits from the interaction... which changes the relationship to ____.

mutualism

179

Parasite common traits(3)

1. Parasites are much smaller than their hosts
2. They produce more quickly and in greater numbers
3. They are highly specialized for their way of life

180

A heavy load of parasites is called an _____
The outcome of the above answer is _____

infection,disease

181

hermatophagic

blood feeding

182

Intermittent parasites or _______ are parasitic relationships that are intermittent and may be short-lived. Ex:______

micropredators

-Mosquitos and hermatophagic(blood feeding) bats

183

Microparasites

-pathogens(viruses, bacteria, and protozoans) are small, with short generation times.
- spread by direct

184

Macroparasites

-include flatworms, roundworms, flukes, lice, ticks, rusts, and smuts, are relatively large.
-comparatively long generation times and typically do not spend whole lifetimes in one host.
-spread by indirect or direct

185

____ plant species derive some or all of their sustenance from other plants.

4000

186

Parasitic Plants

-4000 plant species
-have a haustorium(modified root) that penetrates the host, connecting to its vascular tissues.
-may be hemiparasites(photosynthetic) that obtain water and minerals by connecting to hosts xylem(water-conducting tissue)
- or holoparasites(non photosynthetic heterotrophs) which rely on hosts for all their carbon.

187

Haustorium

haustorium(modified root) that penetrates the host, connecting to its vascular tissues.

188

holoparasites

(non photosynthetic heterotrophs) which rely on hosts for all their carbon.

189

hemiparasites(

(photosynthetic) that obtain water and minerals by connecting to hosts xylem(water-conducting tissue)

190

Xylem

plants water conducting tissue

191

Parasitic Habitat 2

Ectoparasites= lice and ticks live on the hosts skin
-non symbiotic because most don't stay on host for extended periods

Endoparasites= live within the host, every possible place imaginable.

192

Endoparasites

live within the host, every possible place imaginable.

193

Ectoparasites

lice and ticks live on the hosts skin
-non symbiotic because most don't stay on host for extended periods(lice is exception)

194

kleptoparasitism

animal steals resources gathered by another

195

brood parasitism definition and ex:

A parasitistic female will invade another's nest and lay eggs and remove all others except one to ensure the host will return and stay. When eggs hatch they outcompete and kill host hatchling.
ex: robins and cuckoos

196

direct transmission of parasites

a parasite needs no other organism to move between hosts. Transmission occurs by contact or by dispersal through are and/or water.

197

Indirect transmission of parasites

a parasite moves between hosts with the help of another organism either as a biotic vector(means of transferring an entity) or as an intermediate host.

198

definitive host vs intermediate host

host in which a parasite reaches maturity

all other hosts

199

Meningeal Worm Vs. White Tailed Deer

Worm Parasitizes Deer, Elk, and Moose.
. Snails are its intermediate host
.The deer ingests the snails while grazing
. Larvae are eventually excreted by deer where they are eventually picked up by snails
-Cycle

200

When infection occurs the first line of defence for the host is ____.

inflammatory response
-death or injury of host cells stimulates release of histamines, which increase blood flow and cause local inflammation.
-This reaction mobilizes white blood cells to attack the infection

201

When infection occurs the second line of defence for hosts(animals) is _____.

Immune response
-When a virus or bacterium enters the blood, white cells called lymphocytes produce protein(antibodies) that target antigen(refers to parasite itself) on the parasite itself countering the effects.

202

Antigen

Parasite itself

203

True or False=

Effects on Host Populations Can be Density Dependent or Independent.

True

204

Vertical Transmission vs. Horizontal Transmission

parasites are transmitted directly from mother to offspring during the period immediately before birth or after birth.
VS.
Occurs between host adults

205

Parasites that use vertical transmission must be less _____ as to ensure that they survive to the host's full maturity.

virulent

206

Parasites that use horizontal transmission can have _____ virulence because of timing of transmission.

medium or high

occurs between adults

207

Commensalism

in which one organism benefits without significantly affecting the other
- can occur when a host develops adequate defenses

208

mutualism

A host may go beyond merely tolerating an infection, and start exploiting the relationship, at which point both organisms benefit.

209

endosymbiotic hypothesis

chloroplasts and organelles no longer distinct yet originated as independent bacteria and moved through parasitism and symbiosis to become dependant and eventually one unique individual. If not then plants would not be PhotoAutotropic

210

Mutualism types: 4

1.) Provision of energy or minerals
2.) protection from predators, parasites, or herbivores
3.) reduced competition with other species
4.) dispersal of gametes or offspring

211

keystone species

Functional Dominant
. A species whose effect on its community is disproportionate to its abundance

212

Bioengineers and ex

a type of Keystone species

-modify there habitat much more then expected given there numbers

ex: Beaver

213

2 examples of herbaceous keystone species

African Elephant and NA Bison affect community by removing woody areas and allowing grass species to take over.

214

A keystone species may affect interactions between communities on a landscape, between different systems. Ex

Black bears transfer large amounts of energy and nutrients between aquatic and terrestrial systems.

215

Keystone predation in a community acts as a biotic disturbance which averts the equilibrium fate of _______ ________ by keeping prey populations below their carrying capacities.

Competitive Exclusion

216

species composition

the identity of species present

217

functional groups

species that perform similar community functions

218

food web classification

describes groups of species that acquire energy in a similar way.

219

Food Web: Node

a circle on a food web representing a species or group of species.

220

Food Web: Species Types(3)

1.) Basal= do not eat other species but are food themselves
2.) Intermediate= which both eat other species and are themselves prey
3.) top species(typically top-level predators), which eat intermediate and/or basal species but are not eaten.

221

Ecologists simplify by lumping species into
1.) _____(A) or primary producers occupying the first(basal) trophic level
2.)______(H) in 2nd trophic level
3.)______(C) in 3rd trophic level and any upper levels
4.) Top Predator has its own designation represented by a letter= ___

1.) Autotrophs
2.) herbivores
3.) carnivores
4.) P

222

Same-Chain Omnivores

may interact with prey as both predator and competitor

223

different-chain omnivore

the omnivore feeds in different chains, no possibility of competition with prey.

224

Guild

groups of species based on common attributes

ex: made up of different species that feed upon the same resource.

225

apparent competition

can occur when a predator feeds on two non- competing prey

226

indirect commensalism

in which to predators each consume different but competing prey.

227

indirect mutualism

in which indirect actions of species benefits both species.

228

trophic cascade

occur when predators in a food web suppress the abundance or alter the behavior of their prey, thereby releasing the next lower trophic level from predation

229

forbs

non-grass herbaceous species

230

functional redundancy

the idea when one guild member is lost, others assume its role, reducing impact of the loss.

Cannot assume that this always applies.

231

Bottom-up control vs. Top-down control

the productivity and abundance of populations at a given trophic level are controlled by the productivity and abundance of populations at the level below.
VS.
can occur when predators control prey-abundance.

232

Top-down control + Trophic Cascade= Green World Hypothesis

=terrestrial systems accumulate plant biomass because predators keep herbivores in check.

233

growth form of terrestrial communities defined by vegetation.

trees, shrubs, and herbs.

234

Vertical Stratification

Particular height and type of branching determines the number and type of vertical strata which in turn influences and is influenced by vertical light gradient.

235

Most forests have multiple layers: 5

Canopy
Understory
Shrub Layer
Herb Layer
Forest Floor