Q 1: Lab Flashcards Preview

Y2 T1 Biology 228 > Q 1: Lab > Flashcards

Flashcards in Q 1: Lab Deck (98):
1

Glacial Periods vs. Interglacial Periods

Glacial: Periods in an ice age where mean global temperature is low enough to allow continental ice sheets to grow are referred to

Interglacial: those with higher temperatures causing ice sheets to melt and retreat are referred to as

2

When did Earth come out of its most recent glacial age?

27,000 years ago

3

Glacial Till?

Deposits of retreating glaciers that were collected during its advance.

4

Highest point in central North America and in Saskatchewan?

Cypress Hills(1395 m ASL): Important because rivers that crates Saskatchewan landscape flowed directly North East from its position in the Southwest

5

Kettle?

Till areas often contain abundant temporary and permanent ponds, many of which were created when blocks of ice broken from the glacier were buried in till and subsequently melted resulting in local depressions

6

large sections (blocks) break free from the bank and begin to slide and settle towards the river when the river erodes the tow of the bank. The first block removes support for the bank behind it and a second block breaks free and begins to slump. This process continues until as many as 7 to 10 individual blocks moving are towards the river.

Slumping

7

What is the IBP? What are the two areas that were chosen to be studied?

International Biological Program (I.B.P.) was a project under the United Nations which allowed members of various disciplines relating to Ecology to meet with the intent of determining what questions in each discipline needed answering to provide a more complete understanding of the world’s ecosystem.

Two areas which were identified were arctic lakes and mid-grass prairie, both of which were then studied in Canada. Char Lake on Cornwallis Island and Matador Grassland here in Saskatchewan were studied in detail.

8

3 native Species of grass present in Shortgrass prairie?

1. Blue gramagrass=when it pollinates and dries it looks like "false eyelash".
2.Speargrass= named after seeds with long sharp awns. Tightly coiled bit drills into ground by coiling tighter when dry and loosening when wet.
3. June Grass= grows in little bunches, almost looks like weed.

9

Awn?

a stiff bristle, especially one of those growing from the ear or flower of barley, rye, and many grasses.

10

All tropical rainforests have the same soil type because?

because of the type of plant communities that inhabit the area which give the soils its unique makeup.

11

climax community?

when stable community is formed ending succession.
Ex: Michigan sand dunes= lake consistently dumps sand on same side of lake showing the stages of succession as you move on land away from the lake. 2 KM from shore is the climax community(white pine).

12

Channel bank?

contains river in non-flood state.

13

Are we in a glaciation?

Yes, mean temp for this year 15C, regular is 32C

14

What makes a glacier advance and retreat?

When it snows more on the glacier then the pace of melting then a glacier will advance, when it snows less then it retreat.

15

Cypress Hills elevation?

4567 feet ASL or 1395m

extreme SW corner of Saskatchewan
highest elevation in province and the central plains of North America.

rivers flow SW, SE, NE from this formation.

16

Phytosociology

is the branch of science which deals with plant communities, their composition and development, and the relationships between the species within them. Why can places have such similar landscape across the globe?

17

Applied Ecology?

1. Ecosystem Management= Utilize ecology findings in the field.
2.Landscape Ecology= takes care of interactions between humans and other communities ex: wildlife corridor.
3. Conservation Biology=looks at how to save and ensure conservation.
4. Restoration Ecology=work on mechanisms to fix ecosystem.

18

Ecosystem Management?

utilize ecology findings in the field
Applied Ecology

19

Landscape Ecology?

takes care of interactions between humans and other communities ex: wildlife corridor.
How populations may be affected positively or negatively by human infrastructure.
Applied Ecology

20

Conservation Biology?

looks at how to save and ensure conservation.
Applied Ecology
Important to recognize that to save specific animals is to protect ecosystem.

21

Restoration Ecology?

work on mechanisms to fix ecosystem.
Applied Ecology
Potash corp hires many to look at reclaiming/restoring damaged land.

22

Sustainable Use over Development.

Sustainable use is the only way forward if we actually want to protect natural resources and use the environment without overtaxing it. sustainable development is a farce.

23

3 types of grass prairie?

Tall, Mid, and short. Based on water availability.

24

What are sweet clover and alfalfa used for?

To shade the tall grass prairie seeds when attempting to recover it.

25

Humboldt?

A hilly un tamed area which goes against the norm of the rest of Sask, created by a tongue in the glacier which came out and didn't allow for the lake to flatten out the area.

26

Glacier lake average depth?

45 m

27

South vs. North facing banks? ___% difference in water density.

40% difference in water density

28

4 Trees species?

1. Trembling Aspen=open well drained soil
If flooded dies very quickly.
2.Balsam Poplar= Needs active water in soil
3.Cottenwood Poplar= Intolerant of drought, found in floodplains
4.Paperbirch= Needs lots of water

29

What kept trees in check before colonization?

Fires and Buffallo kept the fields almost completely empty of trees. Now much different.

30

Forest Levels?

Canopy-Mid Canopy-Shrubs-Forb(a herbaceous flowering plant other than a grass.)

31

Forb?

a herbaceous flowering plant other than a grass.

32

Losses from a population come from deaths and ____.

emigration

33

Additions to a population come from births and _____.

immigration

34

Biotic Potential

The characteristic of all populations to produce more individuals then are required to replace those already existing. It defines the maximum rate at which a population will grow if conditions are ideal.

35

In populations that reproduce sexually four factors in female life history determine biotic potential of a species.

1. Length of time a female reproduces
2. Female age specific survivorship
3. Female births per female per reproduction
4. Delay of reproduction; time between birth and production of the average number of female offspring(generation time T).

36

J shaped growth curve?

If resources become exhausted the population may suddenly crash creating J.

37

Sigmoid or logistic growth Curve

Carrying Capacity(K)
When a population is growing and approaching exponential but as the size increases limiting factors(intraspecific competition for food, suitable habitat, etc.) act to slow the population growth.

38

Deterministic vs. Stochastic(

Deterministic= Always predicts same future for the population-Fixed values means outcome is fixed as well.

Stochastic= formulated in terms of probabilities of occurrence of such different events. Does not always predict same future for population.

39

Charles Darwin theory of Natural Selection(6)

he proposed that all organisms are related by descent, i.e. have evolved from a common anscestor, through a process of natural selection. His theory can be stated as follows:

1. Biotic Potential= ability of species to produce more offspring then needed, if species fail to produce enough offspring to replace existing individuals then extinction soon follows.
2. Most species follow a logistic growth pattern dictated by biotic and abiotic factors.
3. Must be struggle for existence or all populations would grow exponentially.
4. Individuals in a population vary in characteristics which if successful will be passed on to offspring.
5. Individuals that vary most strongly in the direction favoured by the environment will survive and reproduce better the less favoured.
6. Population slowly adapts to its environment.

40

Nt

Population size at time t(individuals)

41

N0

original population size(individuals)

42

t

time during which population is growing

43

rm

intrinsic rate of increase(individuals/individual/time)

44

r

realized intrinsic rate of increase at a particular point in time or population size and may or may not=rm, usually referred to as realized r or r(local).(individuals/individual/time)

45

e

base of natural logarithms

46

K

Carrying capacity: the maximum number of individuals a given environment can support.

47

Above K the value of r can become ____

negative

48

Grass that was in all of the Quadrats at top of hill

Crested Wheat Grass

49

Beaver Creek was taken over by______ _____ _______(MVA) in 1979 and turned into a conservation area.

Meewasin Valley Authority

50

Strawberry Hills

composed of directly deposited mineral material that formed the eastern shore of the lake.

51

highest elevation in Saskatoon area is ____m ASL, while the campus is in the lake bed at _____m ASL. City centre=____m ASL.

615
435
410

52

Ice sheet was about _____m thick

1500

53

At 12000 BP the glacier was...

just north of Saskatoon after Glacier melt.

54

sand was deposited along the lake _____ while the finer silt and clay particles were carried into the ____

margin, lake

55

If the lake was intermittent or receding quickly as the glacier retreated, these deposits amount to ____ enrichment of the till.

Clay

56

If sand is found to cover lake bed sediments it is usually located at____

river deltas or melt water outwashes from the glacier and the sand, thus deposited can be quite extensive.

57

Beaver Creek is located in a range of "___ ____" that represent the delta of the south Saskatchewan river at _____ to _______ years BP.

Sand Hills

10,000 to 20,000

58

Soils in and around Saskatoon are largely _____ ___ ____ _____ because of a large bay in the glacier allowed the lake to drain.

shallow lake bed clays

59

Why did the lake margin never reach Saskatoon and hence sand deposition did not take place?

Glacial lake Saskatchewan was very large and so much water drained so quickly that the Qu'Apple-Assiniboine river system spilled into the Souris River System via a meltwater channel cut into the till deposits. The Souris is part of the Missouri River Drainage.

60

Glacial lake Saskatchewan was very large and so much water drained so quickly that the ________-_____river system spilled into the _____ River System via a meltwater channel cut into the till deposits. The _____ is part of the _______ River Drainage.

Qu'Apple-Assiniboine

Souris

Souris, Missouri

61

The Surface of the river represents the location of the ____ _____.

Water Table

62

Beaver Creek: The first __m is fine _____, followed by ___m of _____(__ m of which is Saturated). Beneath this is compacted glacial till so this represents about ___m of ___ and ____ sediments resting on glacial deposits.

7, Sand
25, clay, 6
32, Lake and River

63

The Northern bank has ____, while the Southern Bank has _____.

shrubs
trees

64

Char lake and Matador Grassland in SK are example of?

Two areas that were studied extensively by the IBP.

65

How big is Small Grass Prairie at Beaver Creek? __ hectares

4 hectares

66

explain ecological succession seen at beaver creek

-Pioneer species move onto sand to colonize.
-Plaints build sand bar up by catching material when flooded until its built up enough so flooding no longer affects it.
- Nutrients locked in plants
-Finishes with climax community

67

Michigan Sand Dunes

Ex: of Ecological Succession start to finish

68

Mean temp of planet now ___c
Mean temp average of planet ___c

15
32

69

Organisms can be classified into 3 basic groups

1. Autotrophs( Primary Producer)
2. Heterotrophs( Consumers)
3. Detritivores( Decomposers)

70

Soil by river different then beaver creek's sand : ___

clay

71

tertiary consumer

a carnivore in a food chain that feeds on other carnivores; an animal that feeds only on secondary consumers.

72

quaternary consumer

quaternary consumer is an animal that is at the top of the food chain. These animals mainly eat or prey on animals below them on the food chain, such as tertiary and secondary consumers.

73

Name basic trophic levels= 5

Primary Producer
Primary Consumer
Secondary Consumer
Tertiary Consumer
Quaternary Consumer

74

Secondary conversion

energy not new, just converted for another use

75

How to maintain biomass

No Energy in or out
or
some energy in, some out

76

biomass

Stored energy, weight(dry weight) of biological material

77

Output Energy

living in general burns a lot of energy
-metabolic energy
- thermoregulation(we are hemotherms 37c

78

hemotherms

an organism that maintains its body temperature at a constant level, usually above that of the environment, by its metabolic activity.

79

2 parts of the food chain that must be present

Grazing Foodchain(GFC)

Detritus(DFC)= waste products, dead things
-nutrients recycled, unlocked for reuse.

80

Ecosystems(KNOW THIS)

Is a defined region where members of the community interact with each other and their physical environment in the transfer of energy and materials. The scope of the ecosystem is defined by the observer.

81

Community

is all the populations in an ecosystem

82

Population

all individuals of a species present

83

Species

is a group of morphologically similar individuals that naturally interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

84

Artificial Selection

selective breeding
-explains Great Danes and Chihuahua

85

Which one is the theory and which one is the observation?
Natural Selection and Evolution

Natural Selection= Theory
Evolution= Observation

86

Braum-Blanquet rapid cover estimation

assign a value(1-5) which corresponds with a percentage for the amount of quadrat covered by vertical projection of the leaves of a given species.

87

N0

initial population

88

B

births

89

D

deaths

90

I

Immigration

91

E

Emigration

92

NT

Population over certain time period

93

How to figure out Birth rate(b)

B=135,000,000
N= 7,400,000,000

b= (B X 1000)/N

ex:
B= 135,000,000
N= 7,400,000,000

b= (135,000,000 X 1000)/ 7,400,000,000
b= 18.2 births per 1000 population per year

18.2/1000= per capita rate of 0.0182 individual/individual/year

94

A small population may grow at a rate approaching exponential but as the size of the population increases limiting factors act to slow the population growth. Eventually such a population will reach a static situation in which the number of individuals in the population is the maximum number that a given area or volume can support.

Logistic or sigmoid growth (s)

95

λ

Lambda= finite rate of increase or multiplication rate(units:time)

96

b

birthrate(units:time)

97

d

deathrate(units:time)

98

rm=___

1n( λ)