Flashcards in Q 1: Lab Deck (98):
Glacial Periods vs. Interglacial Periods
Glacial: Periods in an ice age where mean global temperature is low enough to allow continental ice sheets to grow are referred to
Interglacial: those with higher temperatures causing ice sheets to melt and retreat are referred to as
When did Earth come out of its most recent glacial age?
27,000 years ago
Deposits of retreating glaciers that were collected during its advance.
Highest point in central North America and in Saskatchewan?
Cypress Hills(1395 m ASL): Important because rivers that crates Saskatchewan landscape flowed directly North East from its position in the Southwest
Till areas often contain abundant temporary and permanent ponds, many of which were created when blocks of ice broken from the glacier were buried in till and subsequently melted resulting in local depressions
large sections (blocks) break free from the bank and begin to slide and settle towards the river when the river erodes the tow of the bank. The first block removes support for the bank behind it and a second block breaks free and begins to slump. This process continues until as many as 7 to 10 individual blocks moving are towards the river.
What is the IBP? What are the two areas that were chosen to be studied?
International Biological Program (I.B.P.) was a project under the United Nations which allowed members of various disciplines relating to Ecology to meet with the intent of determining what questions in each discipline needed answering to provide a more complete understanding of the world’s ecosystem.
Two areas which were identified were arctic lakes and mid-grass prairie, both of which were then studied in Canada. Char Lake on Cornwallis Island and Matador Grassland here in Saskatchewan were studied in detail.
3 native Species of grass present in Shortgrass prairie?
1. Blue gramagrass=when it pollinates and dries it looks like "false eyelash".
2.Speargrass= named after seeds with long sharp awns. Tightly coiled bit drills into ground by coiling tighter when dry and loosening when wet.
3. June Grass= grows in little bunches, almost looks like weed.
a stiff bristle, especially one of those growing from the ear or flower of barley, rye, and many grasses.
All tropical rainforests have the same soil type because?
because of the type of plant communities that inhabit the area which give the soils its unique makeup.
when stable community is formed ending succession.
Ex: Michigan sand dunes= lake consistently dumps sand on same side of lake showing the stages of succession as you move on land away from the lake. 2 KM from shore is the climax community(white pine).
contains river in non-flood state.
Are we in a glaciation?
Yes, mean temp for this year 15C, regular is 32C
What makes a glacier advance and retreat?
When it snows more on the glacier then the pace of melting then a glacier will advance, when it snows less then it retreat.
Cypress Hills elevation?
4567 feet ASL or 1395m
extreme SW corner of Saskatchewan
highest elevation in province and the central plains of North America.
rivers flow SW, SE, NE from this formation.
is the branch of science which deals with plant communities, their composition and development, and the relationships between the species within them. Why can places have such similar landscape across the globe?
1. Ecosystem Management= Utilize ecology findings in the field.
2.Landscape Ecology= takes care of interactions between humans and other communities ex: wildlife corridor.
3. Conservation Biology=looks at how to save and ensure conservation.
4. Restoration Ecology=work on mechanisms to fix ecosystem.
utilize ecology findings in the field
takes care of interactions between humans and other communities ex: wildlife corridor.
How populations may be affected positively or negatively by human infrastructure.
looks at how to save and ensure conservation.
Important to recognize that to save specific animals is to protect ecosystem.
work on mechanisms to fix ecosystem.
Potash corp hires many to look at reclaiming/restoring damaged land.
Sustainable Use over Development.
Sustainable use is the only way forward if we actually want to protect natural resources and use the environment without overtaxing it. sustainable development is a farce.
3 types of grass prairie?
Tall, Mid, and short. Based on water availability.
What are sweet clover and alfalfa used for?
To shade the tall grass prairie seeds when attempting to recover it.
A hilly un tamed area which goes against the norm of the rest of Sask, created by a tongue in the glacier which came out and didn't allow for the lake to flatten out the area.
Glacier lake average depth?
South vs. North facing banks? ___% difference in water density.
40% difference in water density
4 Trees species?
1. Trembling Aspen=open well drained soil
If flooded dies very quickly.
2.Balsam Poplar= Needs active water in soil
3.Cottenwood Poplar= Intolerant of drought, found in floodplains
4.Paperbirch= Needs lots of water
What kept trees in check before colonization?
Fires and Buffallo kept the fields almost completely empty of trees. Now much different.
Canopy-Mid Canopy-Shrubs-Forb(a herbaceous flowering plant other than a grass.)
a herbaceous flowering plant other than a grass.
Losses from a population come from deaths and ____.
Additions to a population come from births and _____.
The characteristic of all populations to produce more individuals then are required to replace those already existing. It defines the maximum rate at which a population will grow if conditions are ideal.
In populations that reproduce sexually four factors in female life history determine biotic potential of a species.
1. Length of time a female reproduces
2. Female age specific survivorship
3. Female births per female per reproduction
4. Delay of reproduction; time between birth and production of the average number of female offspring(generation time T).
J shaped growth curve?
If resources become exhausted the population may suddenly crash creating J.
Sigmoid or logistic growth Curve
When a population is growing and approaching exponential but as the size increases limiting factors(intraspecific competition for food, suitable habitat, etc.) act to slow the population growth.
Deterministic vs. Stochastic(
Deterministic= Always predicts same future for the population-Fixed values means outcome is fixed as well.
Stochastic= formulated in terms of probabilities of occurrence of such different events. Does not always predict same future for population.
Charles Darwin theory of Natural Selection(6)
he proposed that all organisms are related by descent, i.e. have evolved from a common anscestor, through a process of natural selection. His theory can be stated as follows:
1. Biotic Potential= ability of species to produce more offspring then needed, if species fail to produce enough offspring to replace existing individuals then extinction soon follows.
2. Most species follow a logistic growth pattern dictated by biotic and abiotic factors.
3. Must be struggle for existence or all populations would grow exponentially.
4. Individuals in a population vary in characteristics which if successful will be passed on to offspring.
5. Individuals that vary most strongly in the direction favoured by the environment will survive and reproduce better the less favoured.
6. Population slowly adapts to its environment.
Population size at time t(individuals)
original population size(individuals)
time during which population is growing
intrinsic rate of increase(individuals/individual/time)
realized intrinsic rate of increase at a particular point in time or population size and may or may not=rm, usually referred to as realized r or r(local).(individuals/individual/time)
base of natural logarithms
Carrying capacity: the maximum number of individuals a given environment can support.
Above K the value of r can become ____
Grass that was in all of the Quadrats at top of hill
Crested Wheat Grass
Beaver Creek was taken over by______ _____ _______(MVA) in 1979 and turned into a conservation area.
Meewasin Valley Authority
composed of directly deposited mineral material that formed the eastern shore of the lake.
highest elevation in Saskatoon area is ____m ASL, while the campus is in the lake bed at _____m ASL. City centre=____m ASL.
Ice sheet was about _____m thick
At 12000 BP the glacier was...
just north of Saskatoon after Glacier melt.
sand was deposited along the lake _____ while the finer silt and clay particles were carried into the ____
If the lake was intermittent or receding quickly as the glacier retreated, these deposits amount to ____ enrichment of the till.
If sand is found to cover lake bed sediments it is usually located at____
river deltas or melt water outwashes from the glacier and the sand, thus deposited can be quite extensive.
Beaver Creek is located in a range of "___ ____" that represent the delta of the south Saskatchewan river at _____ to _______ years BP.
10,000 to 20,000
Soils in and around Saskatoon are largely _____ ___ ____ _____ because of a large bay in the glacier allowed the lake to drain.
shallow lake bed clays
Why did the lake margin never reach Saskatoon and hence sand deposition did not take place?
Glacial lake Saskatchewan was very large and so much water drained so quickly that the Qu'Apple-Assiniboine river system spilled into the Souris River System via a meltwater channel cut into the till deposits. The Souris is part of the Missouri River Drainage.
Glacial lake Saskatchewan was very large and so much water drained so quickly that the ________-_____river system spilled into the _____ River System via a meltwater channel cut into the till deposits. The _____ is part of the _______ River Drainage.
The Surface of the river represents the location of the ____ _____.
Beaver Creek: The first __m is fine _____, followed by ___m of _____(__ m of which is Saturated). Beneath this is compacted glacial till so this represents about ___m of ___ and ____ sediments resting on glacial deposits.
25, clay, 6
32, Lake and River
The Northern bank has ____, while the Southern Bank has _____.
Char lake and Matador Grassland in SK are example of?
Two areas that were studied extensively by the IBP.
How big is Small Grass Prairie at Beaver Creek? __ hectares
explain ecological succession seen at beaver creek
-Pioneer species move onto sand to colonize.
-Plaints build sand bar up by catching material when flooded until its built up enough so flooding no longer affects it.
- Nutrients locked in plants
-Finishes with climax community
Michigan Sand Dunes
Ex: of Ecological Succession start to finish
Mean temp of planet now ___c
Mean temp average of planet ___c
Organisms can be classified into 3 basic groups
1. Autotrophs( Primary Producer)
2. Heterotrophs( Consumers)
3. Detritivores( Decomposers)
Soil by river different then beaver creek's sand : ___
a carnivore in a food chain that feeds on other carnivores; an animal that feeds only on secondary consumers.
quaternary consumer is an animal that is at the top of the food chain. These animals mainly eat or prey on animals below them on the food chain, such as tertiary and secondary consumers.
Name basic trophic levels= 5
energy not new, just converted for another use
How to maintain biomass
No Energy in or out
some energy in, some out
Stored energy, weight(dry weight) of biological material
living in general burns a lot of energy
- thermoregulation(we are hemotherms 37c
an organism that maintains its body temperature at a constant level, usually above that of the environment, by its metabolic activity.
2 parts of the food chain that must be present
Detritus(DFC)= waste products, dead things
-nutrients recycled, unlocked for reuse.
Is a defined region where members of the community interact with each other and their physical environment in the transfer of energy and materials. The scope of the ecosystem is defined by the observer.
is all the populations in an ecosystem
all individuals of a species present
is a group of morphologically similar individuals that naturally interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
-explains Great Danes and Chihuahua
Which one is the theory and which one is the observation?
Natural Selection and Evolution
Natural Selection= Theory
Braum-Blanquet rapid cover estimation
assign a value(1-5) which corresponds with a percentage for the amount of quadrat covered by vertical projection of the leaves of a given species.
Population over certain time period
How to figure out Birth rate(b)
b= (B X 1000)/N
b= (135,000,000 X 1000)/ 7,400,000,000
b= 18.2 births per 1000 population per year
18.2/1000= per capita rate of 0.0182 individual/individual/year
A small population may grow at a rate approaching exponential but as the size of the population increases limiting factors act to slow the population growth. Eventually such a population will reach a static situation in which the number of individuals in the population is the maximum number that a given area or volume can support.
Logistic or sigmoid growth (s)
Lambda= finite rate of increase or multiplication rate(units:time)