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Flashcards in Q 2: Lab Deck (124):
1

Methods for the purpose of quantitative description(5)

1. Cover- i.e, what area does each species cover
2. Frequency of occurrence
3. Density or number of individuals per unit area
4. Biomass or weight per unit area
5. basal area

2

flora

is a list of plant species that occur in a given area where the order of species is related to ease of use.

Ex: Alphabetical order

A flora gives no indication of the importance or abundance of the species present.

3

Vegetation

is a list of plant species that occur in a given area where the order of species is related to importance or abundance of each species present. The first species in a vegetation list will be the species that has been assessed to be the most abundant or important to the area usually using one of the above measures.

Can be expressed as an absolute measure such as density(# of individuals of a species per unit area) or relative value, usually in percent, such as relative density(density of species X/total density for all species present).

The text has a good discussion of the development of "Importance Values" for species comprising a plant community.

4

most common technique for measuring plant abundance generally involve...

...setting up a series of straight lines, either parallel or perpendicular(produces a grid system) to one another, in the study area.

This is called "Transects"

5

The sample reference frames are called:

quadrats

6

____ can be square, rectangular, and pretty much any other shape other then a circle which is a bounded area.

quadrats

7

Quadrat size for Moss, Lichen=

0.1- 0.25 m2

8

Quadrat size for Grasses and forbs

0.25- 2 m2

9

Quadrat size Shrubs

10- 15 m2

10

Quadrat Size Trees

100- 150 m2

11

A point intercept method cannot generate _____ _____.

density data

12

where do you measure the diameter of Trees basal area?

Areal Cover:

DBH= Diameter breast height 1.5 Metres above the ground.

13

LAI

Areal Cover:

Leaf Area Index=
.the ratio between total leaf area above the soil surface and the soil surface area.

. Can range from "0" in true desert or "5" in tropical rainforest

.Strongly related to the availability of Photosynthetically Active Radiation(PAR) at any given level within the vertical structure of the plant community.

14

PAR

Areal Cover:

Photosynthetically Active Radiation=

.How sunlight is soaked up as it goes down vertical stratification.
. See Text(pg.59-2)

15

Types of Data: 4

1.) Areal Cover
2.) Frequency
3.) Density
4.) Biomass

16

Areal Cover

Under the criterion of area are included all those methods that take into account- either by estimate, exact measurement, or some related function- the amount of ground covered by individual species and by the whole vegetation.

Areal cover can be defined as the vertical projection of the above-ground parts of each plant onto the ground.

17

Frequency

related to the number of times a species occurs in a given number of repeatedly placed small sample plots or sample points.

can be distributed randomly, for example, by throwing a metal ring, or systematically by following a regular patterns.

The species are recorded without regard to their quantity or number of individuals.

For comparing different communities, frequency is best expressed as a percentage of the total number of placements, i.e, the frequency percentage of frequency index.

18

2 types of frequency

1. Shoot frequency= obtained by recording as present all foliage overlapping into a quadrat.

2. Rooted Frequency= records a species being present only when it is actually rooted in the quadrat.

19

______ is the most commonly applied quantitative parameter for the analysis of forest undergrowth and herbaceous communities in North American description studies.

Frequency

20

Rooted frequency

Rooted Frequency= records a species being present only when it is actually rooted in the quadrat.

21

Shoot Frequency

Shoot frequency= obtained by recording as present all foliage overlapping into a quadrat.

22

Density

define, characteristics, and difficulties

refers to the number of individuals per unit area usually obtained by a simple count of plants in a series of random quadrats.

.extremely time consuming but extremely accurate
. Suitable for early stages of colonization, ex: stabilization of sand dunes and denuded land undergoing vegetation or recovering after abiotic factors.

Difficulty:
-Recognition of individuals
- Difficult to decipher where one individual begins and one ends
- Rhizomatous and Stoloniferous forms can hardly be counted.
-boundaries may spit shrubs

23

Biomass

refers to the total dry weight of biological material per unit area and is usually obtained by harvesting plants in a series of random quadrats. These plants are then dried at 60C until a constant dry weight is achieved.

- can be extremely time consuming
- requires extensive record keeping
- Biomass is relatively accurate and generally used in studies where energy within the ecosystem is being examined as biomass represents stored energy.
-Can be used to measure energy flows in ecosystem

24

Braun-Blanquet scale of cover-abundance(6)

5- covers >75%
4- covers 50-75%
3- covers 25-50%
2- covers 5-25%
1 - covers <5%
+ - present but with very little cover

25

Point Intercept Method

metal rods drop and whatever they touch is recorded

26

Line intercept method

using a long thin quadrat along a line

ex: used for varying landscapes that cant sporadically be recorded.

27

most accurate evaluations in quadrats come from rectangles with approximately a __ to __ ration between sides.

2 to 1

28

X2(Chi-Square) or Goodness of Fit Test
Small or High

X2= (O-E)2/E

Expresses the square of the difference in units of the expected outcome.

Small chance deviation= high probability of occurrence: p> 0.05

Large non-random deviation= low probability of occurrence: p<0.05

29

Large non-random deviation= ____ probability of occurrence: p<0.05

low

30

Small chance deviation= ____ probability of occurrence: p> 0.05

high

31

Matador Project

an extensive investigation of the mid(mixed) grass prarie on which Northern Wheatgrass and Smith's Wheatgrass were the dominant species.

32

Aboveground biomass can be separated into three functions

1. Fresh Mulch: dead standing material which gree in current, or late in the previous, growing season and is easily removed.

2. Standing crop: live, photosynthetically active material which is clipped at ground level/

Combining 1+2= Shoot Standing Crop

3. Litter: the third fraction, covers the surface of the mineral soil as a layer of fine, fibrous organic material which may be several centimetres thick in areas with low fire incidence.

33

Shoot Standing Crop

Combination of Fresh Mulch and Standing crop

34

-1 gm dry organic matter=___ KCals=___ kJ

4, 17

this is low because dead organic matter-mulch and litter- is less energetic then live.

35

Net Primary Production of Shoots= ___ x (standing crop+mulch= shoot standing crop)

1.2

36

Net Primary Production of Roots= ____ x Shoot NPP

1.33

37

Underground Biomass= 4 x ______ ___________ _________

Total Aboveground Biomass

38

GPP and NPP in a True energy flow diagram insolation would be depicted by arrows representing energy flow and arrow _____ would be proportional to the amount of energy carried.

Boxes representing biomass would be drawn with areas in proportion to the amount of ____ each represents.

width

Biomass

39

PAR

The amount of light energy available for use in photosynthesis by plants of the community is referred to as Photosynthetically Active Radiation.

-Can be measured in many different units such as energy units( kilojoules, joules, calories, etc.) and energy proxies such as grams dry weight biomass or grams of carbon.

-PAR is always an energy measure per unit area per unit time.

40

PAR can be measured in ____ and/or _____.

Energy units and/or energy proxies

41

PAR is always an _____ per unit ____ per unit ____.

energy measure, area, time.

42

GPP

Gross Primary Production:
. The amount of light that is actually captured by photosynthetic pigments in the chloroplasts of the primary producers in a biological community and converted to energy in chemical bonds of glucose.

43

_____ represents all of the energy that will enter the ecosystem per unit time and is therefore the only energy available to run the entire system.

GPP

44

Secondary production would be more accurately called _______

secondary conversion

45

CE?

CE=___/____x _____

Primary Producer Consumption Efficiency:
.Normally calculated for consumer organisms

GPP/PARx100

46

LCE?

LCE=___/____x____

Light capture Efficiency:
. the amount of light energy stored in the chemical bonds of sugars produced in photosynthesis to the amount of available PAR.
. Total light capture stated in dry biomass per unit area per unit time, is referred to as GPP

LCE= GPP/PARx100

47

Light capture efficiency can vary widely by ecosystem and dependant on many factors which influence the production of ____ per unit area.

Chlorophyll

48

The theoretical maximum light capture could be as high as ____% in a perfect system where no PAR escapes photosynthesis. A majority of natural systems capture less then ___% of available light.

12, 1

49

Some crop plants(____, _____, and _____) and artificial experimental systems have attained light capture rates of up to ___% but light capture efficiencies over ___% are rare in nature.

Sugar cane, corn, and Sugar Beets

6
2

50

Sugars produced in photosynthesis can be used by plants in 1 of 2 ways=

1. converted to biological molecules used in production of new plant tissue
2. combined with oxygen, in the process we call respiration, to produce the energy necessary to carry out the conversions.

- In the energy producing process sugars are converted back to carbon dioxide and water and a great deal of heat is produced.

51

Any photosynthetic material that is not respired is stored in primary producers tissues as ____, ____, _____,or ____. This represents an addition of new biomass to the existing biomass(dry weight of biological material per unit area) of the primary producer.

The addition in biomass occurs through ________ or _______. This is called ____.

Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, or Nucleic Acids


Increase in size or production of offspring.
Net Primary Production(NPP)

52

NPP

NPP= ____- _____

Net Primary Production:
.the amount of new biological material per unit area per unit time after primary producers are done respiration.

NPP= GPP- R

53

R

Respiration Rate= ___/___x___

Respiration:
.the energy producing process experienced by plants when sugars are converted back to carbon dioxide and water and a great deal of heat is produced.

Respiration Rate= R/GPPx100

54

TR

In Primary Producer it is known as __:__ ___

TR= _____/______

Turnover Rate:
.the ratio between net production and the dry weight biomass for that trophic level
-In primary producers it is known as P:B Ratio.
-usually expressed as a percent

TR= Net Production/ Biomass

55

MRT

also called ____ _____ _____ in plant communities.

MRT= ___/___

Mean Residence Time:
.inverse of Turnover Rate
. also called Biomass accumulation rate in plant communities
. Measures the average amount of time that objects remain in a system.

MRT=1/TR

56

Secondary Production or Secondary Productivity

.The NPP placed into the biomass of the primary producers represents the energy that is available to Primary Consumers(PC)
-Obtained by consuming primary producer body tissues.
- also obtained is the majority of nutrients at the same time.
- Ingestion: when other Nutrients, for example salts, are often taken in from the surrounding environment as inorganic molecules.

57

I

Ingestion:
. when other Nutrients, for example salts, are often taken in from the surrounding environment as inorganic molecules.

58

CE=____/______x____

Primary Consumer Consumption Effeciency(CE)

CE= amount of primary producer NPP consumed by PC/ NPP of Primary Producers x 100

59

Occasionally the value for consumption/ingestion, for any consumer level, is referred to as their _____( ) or _____( ) but it is more correct to use consumption or ingestion when describing this energy transfer.

Gross Production(GP) or Gross Secondary Production(GSP)

60

A


A=___-___

AE= ___/___X100

Assimilation:
.Once in the gut of the primary consumer, the tissues of the primary producer undergo digestion which breaks the primary producer tissues into smaller molecules that can be absorbed across the gut wall.

A= I - W

AE= A/I x 100

61

W

W= __ - (___+___)

Egested(Egestion)- commonly known as Waste:
.a portion of the ingested material may not be broken down
-indigestible material
-leaves the body in the form of feces

W= I - (NSP+R)

62

NSP

Commonly known as:
Primary Consumer Net Secondary Production

More accurately know as:
Net Secondary Conversion



Animals- Biomass added and the amount of respiration

Plants-Additions to biomass through growth of individuals or reproduction

63

NPE

Primary Consumer NPE= ______/______ x 100

Net Production Efficiency:
-Used often instead of AE(Assimilation Efficiencies)

Primary Consumer NPE= Primary consumer NSP/Primary consumer I x 100

NOTE: NPE CAN BE CALCULATED THE SAME WAY FOR ANY CONSUMER LEVEL IN AN ECOSYSTEMS FOOD CHAIN.

64

Primary Consumer Respiration Rate=_____/_____x100

=primary consumer respiration/primary consumer I x100

65

EE

EE= _____/_____x100

Ecological Efficiency:
. The ratio between the net productions of success of trophic levels; efficiency of transferring net production at one trophic level into net production at the succeeding trophic level
. EE provides an explanation for the limited number of trophic levels and limited population sizes within a trophic level; as to demonstrate how little of the original NPP is passed up the food chain

EE= Primary Consumer NSP/Primary Producer NPP x100

66

Lindeman's Rule

The amount of energy transferred from net production at one trophic level into net production at the succeeding trophic level is ALWAYS less then 10%.


EE provides an explanation for the limited number of trophic levels and limited population sizes within a trophic level; as to demonstrate how little of the original NPP is passed up the food chain

67

When EE's are measured very few surpass ___%

5

68

Large Chi Squared value means

large non-random deviation, uncommon
0.05

69

Small Chi Squared value means
>_____

high probability of occurring, less deviation
0.05

70

E=____

x(2)

71

df in charts = _________

rows - 1

72

df=___,___(__,__),____

df= df(rows-1), X(2)(0,probability level(0.01)),chi table value< or >X(2) value

ex:

df=7, X(2)(0,0.01), 18.475<27.747

73

An X(2) value is ______ if it is larger then chi square value

significant

74

Bivariate Situations

When single samples(such as quadrats) yield simultaneous data about two variables A and B(such as prescence and absence of two species), X(2) can be used to test whether the two are independently dispersed(i.e occurring together only by chance) or not.

75

to find expected value in a table

exp=

exp= multiply the corresponding column totals with the corresponding row totals and divide by the grand total

Note that once one value is calculated in a row, the other is the row total minus first value.

76

df(in a table)= (____-____)(____-___)

df= (rows-1)(columns-1)

77

X(2)=__(___-____)(power of 2)/____

X(2)=sum of (observed-expected)(power of 2)/ expected

78

Coles Coefficient of Association

only calculated when the null hypothesis is REJECTED!

+1 = positive association
0 = moderate association
-1 = negative association

x(2) values can be used to determine whether or not associations of species or features are due to chance.
If Exp # is bigger then Obs # in cell "a"=negative
If Obs # is bigger then Exp # in cell "a"=positive

79

Litter=__% to __% ____ ______

8-10% mineral material

80

Standing Grass and Forbs=_______ ________

standing crop

81

At any time live, actively photosynthesizing, shoots made up only 1 in 6 shoots. Dividing the shoot standing crop figure in the ration _:_ gives live shoot(green shoot) and dead shoot standing crop figures.

1:5

82

Saskatoon is in the ____ _____ soil area
Melfort is in the _____ _____ soil area
Swift Current is in the _____ ______ soil area

Dark Brown
Black
Brown

83

_____ was one of the first places to use digital weather sampling

Matador

84

biomass does not equal ______

energy level

85

___% of energy burned keeping body heat

90

86

Stable ecosystems tend to have ______ biomass

constant

87

PAR

sunlight

88

NPP=____-___

GPP-R

89

Detritus Food Chain= _____+ _____

bacteria+ fungi

90

Detritus food chain performs _________ which allows....

extracellular digestion
molecules to escape for plant use

91

5 things that affect rate of decomposition

Temp
water
mechanical breakdown
inhibitory compounds
oxygen

92

Most ecosystems capture less then __% per

____ ______(type of ecosystem) is the best at ___%

1

salt marshes at 2.8%

93

Northern Hardwood Forest: 3 tree species that showed types of dispersion?

Basswood: Grows in dense clumps after a natural disturbance around the original trunk it came from. Sprouts from ground

Hemlock: Does really well in organic filled soil from fallen trees. Linear dispersal

Large-Toothed Aspen: Shoots rhizomes in random pattern in loose circles from original individual

94

% error= equation

=([observed-actual])/actual x 100

95

How would densities of a species be affected if you used a larger quadrat to sample a forest?

Density would NOT change!

Numbers grow proportionally with size

96

How would using a smaller quadrat affect frequency values for the species?

Smaller quadrat=lower frequency because probability of finding that species drops

would cut down on the amount of unique individuals, therefore underrepresenting the community

97

Turnover Rate of nitrogen=

Take amount of Nitrogen for primary producers and multiply it by the percentage put towards above and below ground plant parts. Then multiply it by the Shoots and Roots annual Turnover rate.

ex:
19.5 to primary producers
70 % BG and 30% AB
Shoots annual turnover rate: 26.2 %
Roots: 8.7 %

N= 19.5 x 0.30 x 0.262
N=1.5

N= 19.5 x 0.70 x 0.087
N= 1.2

N= 1.5/1.2
N= 2.7

98

Shoots Annual Turnover Rate=

(NPP Shoots/Total Aboveground biomass) x 100

99

Roots Annual Turnover rate=

(NPP roots/ Total belowground biomass) x 100

100

Mean Residence Time=

= 1/TR
= MRT in whatever time period

101

Most Net Radiation is lost to _______ and ________

heat and evapotranspiration

102

REMEMBER= THERE IS NO TURNOVER CROP RESIDUES SO MINUS ____

2

103

Consumption Efficiency def (SCOTT)

Ratio between what's available and what's actually obtained

Plants are special so they employ LCE instead of CE

104

Plants are special so they employ _____ ______ ______ instead of CE

Light capture efficiency

105

GP=
GPP(Scott)
GSP(SCOTT)

Gross Primary Production of Sugar in Plants

Gross Consumption for heterotrophs

106

NPP= ____-___

GPP-R

107

Respiration Rate(Scott)

How much is respired

R/GP

108

Net Production Efficiency or Ecological Growth Efficiency or Assimilation Efficiency(SCOTT):

What proportion becomes new body tissue
Fiber is what can't be digested and becomes egestable
Energy that cannot be assimilated across gut membrane

109

_____ is what can't be digested and becomes _____ ______ that cannot be assimilated across ___ ________

fiber
egestable Energy
gut membrane

110

NPE= ___/____ x 100

NP/GP

111

Ecological Efficiency(Scott)

Measures energy transfer from one trophic level to next

112

Lindeman's Rule:

less then 10% of the available energy at one trophic level is converted to available energy at the succeeding trophic level.

NP at trophic level "x"-->NP at trophic level "x-1"

113

The _______ is the source of nutrients and resources

physical environment

114

_________ is almost like an arctic(cold) desert= no precipitation

. Conductivity= amount of ________ in water

____ water is not good conductor

Lack of ____ means it is a _______ desert

Char Lake Cornwallis(purest body of water in world)


Dissolved ions

pure water

ions, nutrient

115

Photosynthesis is a ______ reaction

chemical

116

Lake ______= extremely full of nutrients, meaning loads of plant life(chlorophyll)

Nakuru

117

Respiration moves more quickly in ____ _____ which allows for _____ growth and energy usage.

higher temps
higher

118

Biomass and Energy Pyramids:

Primary producer biomass and energy is ALWAYS on the bottom

Energy pyramids always grow smaller the higher they move or system would fail, biomass can be any shape!

119

Number ONE RULE between biomass and Energy?

THERE IS NOOOO RELATIONSHIP!!!

120

When respiration outweighs net production you get...

negative energy production

121

GPP is _____ energy that is fixed

original

122

Lake Nikuru is a _____ food chain

grazing

123

Char Lake is a _____ food chain

detritus

124

Name the general principles which are characteristic of food chains in general? 6

1. Always 2 food chains and 1 dominates the other
2. CE increases with trophic level
3. RR increased with trophic level
4. AE decreased with trophic level, direct relationship to RR
5. <1% light capture in average ecosystem
6. No set relationship between energy and biomass