Flashcards in Q 2: Lab Deck (124):
Methods for the purpose of quantitative description(5)
1. Cover- i.e, what area does each species cover
2. Frequency of occurrence
3. Density or number of individuals per unit area
4. Biomass or weight per unit area
5. basal area
is a list of plant species that occur in a given area where the order of species is related to ease of use.
Ex: Alphabetical order
A flora gives no indication of the importance or abundance of the species present.
is a list of plant species that occur in a given area where the order of species is related to importance or abundance of each species present. The first species in a vegetation list will be the species that has been assessed to be the most abundant or important to the area usually using one of the above measures.
Can be expressed as an absolute measure such as density(# of individuals of a species per unit area) or relative value, usually in percent, such as relative density(density of species X/total density for all species present).
The text has a good discussion of the development of "Importance Values" for species comprising a plant community.
most common technique for measuring plant abundance generally involve...
...setting up a series of straight lines, either parallel or perpendicular(produces a grid system) to one another, in the study area.
This is called "Transects"
The sample reference frames are called:
____ can be square, rectangular, and pretty much any other shape other then a circle which is a bounded area.
Quadrat size for Moss, Lichen=
0.1- 0.25 m2
Quadrat size for Grasses and forbs
0.25- 2 m2
Quadrat size Shrubs
10- 15 m2
Quadrat Size Trees
100- 150 m2
A point intercept method cannot generate _____ _____.
where do you measure the diameter of Trees basal area?
DBH= Diameter breast height 1.5 Metres above the ground.
Leaf Area Index=
.the ratio between total leaf area above the soil surface and the soil surface area.
. Can range from "0" in true desert or "5" in tropical rainforest
.Strongly related to the availability of Photosynthetically Active Radiation(PAR) at any given level within the vertical structure of the plant community.
Photosynthetically Active Radiation=
.How sunlight is soaked up as it goes down vertical stratification.
. See Text(pg.59-2)
Types of Data: 4
1.) Areal Cover
Under the criterion of area are included all those methods that take into account- either by estimate, exact measurement, or some related function- the amount of ground covered by individual species and by the whole vegetation.
Areal cover can be defined as the vertical projection of the above-ground parts of each plant onto the ground.
related to the number of times a species occurs in a given number of repeatedly placed small sample plots or sample points.
can be distributed randomly, for example, by throwing a metal ring, or systematically by following a regular patterns.
The species are recorded without regard to their quantity or number of individuals.
For comparing different communities, frequency is best expressed as a percentage of the total number of placements, i.e, the frequency percentage of frequency index.
2 types of frequency
1. Shoot frequency= obtained by recording as present all foliage overlapping into a quadrat.
2. Rooted Frequency= records a species being present only when it is actually rooted in the quadrat.
______ is the most commonly applied quantitative parameter for the analysis of forest undergrowth and herbaceous communities in North American description studies.
Rooted Frequency= records a species being present only when it is actually rooted in the quadrat.
Shoot frequency= obtained by recording as present all foliage overlapping into a quadrat.
define, characteristics, and difficulties
refers to the number of individuals per unit area usually obtained by a simple count of plants in a series of random quadrats.
.extremely time consuming but extremely accurate
. Suitable for early stages of colonization, ex: stabilization of sand dunes and denuded land undergoing vegetation or recovering after abiotic factors.
-Recognition of individuals
- Difficult to decipher where one individual begins and one ends
- Rhizomatous and Stoloniferous forms can hardly be counted.
-boundaries may spit shrubs
refers to the total dry weight of biological material per unit area and is usually obtained by harvesting plants in a series of random quadrats. These plants are then dried at 60C until a constant dry weight is achieved.
- can be extremely time consuming
- requires extensive record keeping
- Biomass is relatively accurate and generally used in studies where energy within the ecosystem is being examined as biomass represents stored energy.
-Can be used to measure energy flows in ecosystem
Braun-Blanquet scale of cover-abundance(6)
5- covers >75%
4- covers 50-75%
3- covers 25-50%
2- covers 5-25%
1 - covers <5%
+ - present but with very little cover
Point Intercept Method
metal rods drop and whatever they touch is recorded
Line intercept method
using a long thin quadrat along a line
ex: used for varying landscapes that cant sporadically be recorded.
most accurate evaluations in quadrats come from rectangles with approximately a __ to __ ration between sides.
2 to 1
X2(Chi-Square) or Goodness of Fit Test
Small or High
Expresses the square of the difference in units of the expected outcome.
Small chance deviation= high probability of occurrence: p> 0.05
Large non-random deviation= low probability of occurrence: p<0.05
Large non-random deviation= ____ probability of occurrence: p<0.05
Small chance deviation= ____ probability of occurrence: p> 0.05
an extensive investigation of the mid(mixed) grass prarie on which Northern Wheatgrass and Smith's Wheatgrass were the dominant species.
Aboveground biomass can be separated into three functions
1. Fresh Mulch: dead standing material which gree in current, or late in the previous, growing season and is easily removed.
2. Standing crop: live, photosynthetically active material which is clipped at ground level/
Combining 1+2= Shoot Standing Crop
3. Litter: the third fraction, covers the surface of the mineral soil as a layer of fine, fibrous organic material which may be several centimetres thick in areas with low fire incidence.
Shoot Standing Crop
Combination of Fresh Mulch and Standing crop
-1 gm dry organic matter=___ KCals=___ kJ
this is low because dead organic matter-mulch and litter- is less energetic then live.
Net Primary Production of Shoots= ___ x (standing crop+mulch= shoot standing crop)
Net Primary Production of Roots= ____ x Shoot NPP
Underground Biomass= 4 x ______ ___________ _________
Total Aboveground Biomass
GPP and NPP in a True energy flow diagram insolation would be depicted by arrows representing energy flow and arrow _____ would be proportional to the amount of energy carried.
Boxes representing biomass would be drawn with areas in proportion to the amount of ____ each represents.
The amount of light energy available for use in photosynthesis by plants of the community is referred to as Photosynthetically Active Radiation.
-Can be measured in many different units such as energy units( kilojoules, joules, calories, etc.) and energy proxies such as grams dry weight biomass or grams of carbon.
-PAR is always an energy measure per unit area per unit time.
PAR can be measured in ____ and/or _____.
Energy units and/or energy proxies
PAR is always an _____ per unit ____ per unit ____.
energy measure, area, time.
Gross Primary Production:
. The amount of light that is actually captured by photosynthetic pigments in the chloroplasts of the primary producers in a biological community and converted to energy in chemical bonds of glucose.
_____ represents all of the energy that will enter the ecosystem per unit time and is therefore the only energy available to run the entire system.
Secondary production would be more accurately called _______
Primary Producer Consumption Efficiency:
.Normally calculated for consumer organisms
Light capture Efficiency:
. the amount of light energy stored in the chemical bonds of sugars produced in photosynthesis to the amount of available PAR.
. Total light capture stated in dry biomass per unit area per unit time, is referred to as GPP
Light capture efficiency can vary widely by ecosystem and dependant on many factors which influence the production of ____ per unit area.
The theoretical maximum light capture could be as high as ____% in a perfect system where no PAR escapes photosynthesis. A majority of natural systems capture less then ___% of available light.
Some crop plants(____, _____, and _____) and artificial experimental systems have attained light capture rates of up to ___% but light capture efficiencies over ___% are rare in nature.
Sugar cane, corn, and Sugar Beets
Sugars produced in photosynthesis can be used by plants in 1 of 2 ways=
1. converted to biological molecules used in production of new plant tissue
2. combined with oxygen, in the process we call respiration, to produce the energy necessary to carry out the conversions.
- In the energy producing process sugars are converted back to carbon dioxide and water and a great deal of heat is produced.
Any photosynthetic material that is not respired is stored in primary producers tissues as ____, ____, _____,or ____. This represents an addition of new biomass to the existing biomass(dry weight of biological material per unit area) of the primary producer.
The addition in biomass occurs through ________ or _______. This is called ____.
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, or Nucleic Acids
Increase in size or production of offspring.
Net Primary Production(NPP)
NPP= ____- _____
Net Primary Production:
.the amount of new biological material per unit area per unit time after primary producers are done respiration.
NPP= GPP- R
Respiration Rate= ___/___x___
.the energy producing process experienced by plants when sugars are converted back to carbon dioxide and water and a great deal of heat is produced.
Respiration Rate= R/GPPx100
In Primary Producer it is known as __:__ ___
.the ratio between net production and the dry weight biomass for that trophic level
-In primary producers it is known as P:B Ratio.
-usually expressed as a percent
TR= Net Production/ Biomass
also called ____ _____ _____ in plant communities.
Mean Residence Time:
.inverse of Turnover Rate
. also called Biomass accumulation rate in plant communities
. Measures the average amount of time that objects remain in a system.
Secondary Production or Secondary Productivity
.The NPP placed into the biomass of the primary producers represents the energy that is available to Primary Consumers(PC)
-Obtained by consuming primary producer body tissues.
- also obtained is the majority of nutrients at the same time.
- Ingestion: when other Nutrients, for example salts, are often taken in from the surrounding environment as inorganic molecules.
. when other Nutrients, for example salts, are often taken in from the surrounding environment as inorganic molecules.
Primary Consumer Consumption Effeciency(CE)
CE= amount of primary producer NPP consumed by PC/ NPP of Primary Producers x 100
Occasionally the value for consumption/ingestion, for any consumer level, is referred to as their _____( ) or _____( ) but it is more correct to use consumption or ingestion when describing this energy transfer.
Gross Production(GP) or Gross Secondary Production(GSP)
.Once in the gut of the primary consumer, the tissues of the primary producer undergo digestion which breaks the primary producer tissues into smaller molecules that can be absorbed across the gut wall.
A= I - W
AE= A/I x 100
W= __ - (___+___)
Egested(Egestion)- commonly known as Waste:
.a portion of the ingested material may not be broken down
-leaves the body in the form of feces
W= I - (NSP+R)
Commonly known as:
Primary Consumer Net Secondary Production
More accurately know as:
Net Secondary Conversion
Animals- Biomass added and the amount of respiration
Plants-Additions to biomass through growth of individuals or reproduction
Primary Consumer NPE= ______/______ x 100
Net Production Efficiency:
-Used often instead of AE(Assimilation Efficiencies)
Primary Consumer NPE= Primary consumer NSP/Primary consumer I x 100
NOTE: NPE CAN BE CALCULATED THE SAME WAY FOR ANY CONSUMER LEVEL IN AN ECOSYSTEMS FOOD CHAIN.
Primary Consumer Respiration Rate=_____/_____x100
=primary consumer respiration/primary consumer I x100
. The ratio between the net productions of success of trophic levels; efficiency of transferring net production at one trophic level into net production at the succeeding trophic level
. EE provides an explanation for the limited number of trophic levels and limited population sizes within a trophic level; as to demonstrate how little of the original NPP is passed up the food chain
EE= Primary Consumer NSP/Primary Producer NPP x100
The amount of energy transferred from net production at one trophic level into net production at the succeeding trophic level is ALWAYS less then 10%.
EE provides an explanation for the limited number of trophic levels and limited population sizes within a trophic level; as to demonstrate how little of the original NPP is passed up the food chain
When EE's are measured very few surpass ___%
Large Chi Squared value means
large non-random deviation, uncommon
Small Chi Squared value means
high probability of occurring, less deviation
df in charts = _________
rows - 1
df= df(rows-1), X(2)(0,probability level(0.01)),chi table value< or >X(2) value
df=7, X(2)(0,0.01), 18.475<27.747
An X(2) value is ______ if it is larger then chi square value
When single samples(such as quadrats) yield simultaneous data about two variables A and B(such as prescence and absence of two species), X(2) can be used to test whether the two are independently dispersed(i.e occurring together only by chance) or not.
to find expected value in a table
exp= multiply the corresponding column totals with the corresponding row totals and divide by the grand total
Note that once one value is calculated in a row, the other is the row total minus first value.
df(in a table)= (____-____)(____-___)
X(2)=__(___-____)(power of 2)/____
X(2)=sum of (observed-expected)(power of 2)/ expected
Coles Coefficient of Association
only calculated when the null hypothesis is REJECTED!
+1 = positive association
0 = moderate association
-1 = negative association
x(2) values can be used to determine whether or not associations of species or features are due to chance.
If Exp # is bigger then Obs # in cell "a"=negative
If Obs # is bigger then Exp # in cell "a"=positive
Litter=__% to __% ____ ______
8-10% mineral material
Standing Grass and Forbs=_______ ________
At any time live, actively photosynthesizing, shoots made up only 1 in 6 shoots. Dividing the shoot standing crop figure in the ration _:_ gives live shoot(green shoot) and dead shoot standing crop figures.
Saskatoon is in the ____ _____ soil area
Melfort is in the _____ _____ soil area
Swift Current is in the _____ ______ soil area
_____ was one of the first places to use digital weather sampling
biomass does not equal ______
___% of energy burned keeping body heat
Stable ecosystems tend to have ______ biomass
Detritus Food Chain= _____+ _____
Detritus food chain performs _________ which allows....
molecules to escape for plant use
5 things that affect rate of decomposition
Most ecosystems capture less then __% per
____ ______(type of ecosystem) is the best at ___%
salt marshes at 2.8%
Northern Hardwood Forest: 3 tree species that showed types of dispersion?
Basswood: Grows in dense clumps after a natural disturbance around the original trunk it came from. Sprouts from ground
Hemlock: Does really well in organic filled soil from fallen trees. Linear dispersal
Large-Toothed Aspen: Shoots rhizomes in random pattern in loose circles from original individual
% error= equation
=([observed-actual])/actual x 100
How would densities of a species be affected if you used a larger quadrat to sample a forest?
Density would NOT change!
Numbers grow proportionally with size
How would using a smaller quadrat affect frequency values for the species?
Smaller quadrat=lower frequency because probability of finding that species drops
would cut down on the amount of unique individuals, therefore underrepresenting the community
Turnover Rate of nitrogen=
Take amount of Nitrogen for primary producers and multiply it by the percentage put towards above and below ground plant parts. Then multiply it by the Shoots and Roots annual Turnover rate.
19.5 to primary producers
70 % BG and 30% AB
Shoots annual turnover rate: 26.2 %
Roots: 8.7 %
N= 19.5 x 0.30 x 0.262
N= 19.5 x 0.70 x 0.087
Shoots Annual Turnover Rate=
(NPP Shoots/Total Aboveground biomass) x 100
Roots Annual Turnover rate=
(NPP roots/ Total belowground biomass) x 100
Mean Residence Time=
= MRT in whatever time period
Most Net Radiation is lost to _______ and ________
heat and evapotranspiration
REMEMBER= THERE IS NO TURNOVER CROP RESIDUES SO MINUS ____
Consumption Efficiency def (SCOTT)
Ratio between what's available and what's actually obtained
Plants are special so they employ LCE instead of CE
Plants are special so they employ _____ ______ ______ instead of CE
Light capture efficiency
Gross Primary Production of Sugar in Plants
Gross Consumption for heterotrophs
How much is respired
Net Production Efficiency or Ecological Growth Efficiency or Assimilation Efficiency(SCOTT):
What proportion becomes new body tissue
Fiber is what can't be digested and becomes egestable
Energy that cannot be assimilated across gut membrane
_____ is what can't be digested and becomes _____ ______ that cannot be assimilated across ___ ________
NPE= ___/____ x 100
Measures energy transfer from one trophic level to next
less then 10% of the available energy at one trophic level is converted to available energy at the succeeding trophic level.
NP at trophic level "x"-->NP at trophic level "x-1"
The _______ is the source of nutrients and resources
_________ is almost like an arctic(cold) desert= no precipitation
. Conductivity= amount of ________ in water
____ water is not good conductor
Lack of ____ means it is a _______ desert
Char Lake Cornwallis(purest body of water in world)
Photosynthesis is a ______ reaction
Lake ______= extremely full of nutrients, meaning loads of plant life(chlorophyll)
Respiration moves more quickly in ____ _____ which allows for _____ growth and energy usage.
Biomass and Energy Pyramids:
Primary producer biomass and energy is ALWAYS on the bottom
Energy pyramids always grow smaller the higher they move or system would fail, biomass can be any shape!
Number ONE RULE between biomass and Energy?
THERE IS NOOOO RELATIONSHIP!!!
When respiration outweighs net production you get...
negative energy production
GPP is _____ energy that is fixed
Lake Nikuru is a _____ food chain
Char Lake is a _____ food chain