Flashcards in Fire Officers Handbook - CH 19 Crew Resource Management And Leading Change Deck (23)
According to the text, what is Crew Resource Management?
A behavioural approach to reducing human error in high-risk high-consequence activities.
Every fire department should take what 5 steps to create a safety culture?
1) provide honest sharing of safety info w/out fear of reprisal
2) adopt a non-punitive policy toward errors
3) take action to reduce errors in the system, walk the talk
4) train firefighters in error avoidance and detection
5) train officers in eval situations, reinforcing error avoidance and managing safety process
What are Dupont’s “dirty dozen” reasons and ways that humans make mistakes?
1) lack of communication
3) lack of knowledge
5) lack of teamwork
7) lack of resources
9) lack of assertiveness
11) lack of awareness
Dr James Reason cites what 2 reasons explaining why holes appear in layers of defence?
1) Active Failures - unsafe acts (not wearing a seatbelt)
2)Latent Conditions - inevitable “resident pathogens” within the system.
Latent Conditions have what 2 kinds of adverse affects?
1) they can translate into error-provoking conditions (time pressure, understaffing, fatigue)
2) they can create long lasting holes or weaknesses in the defenses (untrustworthy alarms, unworkable procedures, design and construction deficiencies)
CRM is an error management model that incorporates what 3 activities?
3) mitigating consequences
The Fire Service CRM covers what 6 areas?
1) communication skills
3) task allocation
4) critical decision making
5) situational awareness
According to the CRM model for the fire service, everyone within the department needs to recognize what 6 facts?
1) no one is infallible
2) technology is fallible
3) catastrophes are the result of a chain of events
4) everyone has obligation to speak up when seeing something wrong
5) people who work together effectively are less likely to have accidents
6) for team to be more effective, every member of team must participate
What 3 components comprise the Triangle of Leadership?
1) trust and respect
2) effective leadership
3) leadership skills
What is the focal point of CRM in conflict resolution?
To focus on what is right not who is right.
What is Followership?
Followership is the act or condition of following a leader, adherence.
All followers should perform a self-assessmement of their ability to function as part of a team. The self assessment should consider what 4 critical areas?
1) Physical condition - good physical condition critical in fire service
2) Mental condition - must be free of distractions that could take away from task at hand
3) Attitude - to be effective team member, must be willing to follow orders and be part of a cohesive team
4) Understanding human behaviour -
What is Recognition-primed decision making?
The process by which commanders can recognize a plausible plan of action.
What is Naturalistic-decision making?
The process by which commanders make decisions in their natural environment.
What are the 6 steps that should be followed to maintain emergency scene situational awareness?
1) Fight the Fire - don’t lose focus of the task at hand (put out fire)
2) Assess problems in the time available - need a balance between rushing headlong into a burning building and waiting until all hazards are assessed.
3) Gather info from all sources - use rest of the crew, ff, and officers on scene
4) Choose the best option - maximizes results and minimizes risks
5) Monitor results and alter the plan as necessary - have a plan B or C
6) Beware of situational awareness loss factors.
What 7 loss factors must be taken into account?
6) improper procedures
7) unresolved discrepancy
Okray and Lubnau recommend a 5 step model, for Fire Officers to lead change through debriefings. What are the 5 steps?
1) just the facts
2) what did you do
3) what went wrong
4) what went right
5) what are you going to do about it
CRM suggests that the keys to reducing errors resulting from miscommunication are what 3 things?
1) developing a standard language
2) maintaining a sterile cockpit
3) teaching appropriate assertive behaviour
According to CRM when does Task Overload occur ?
When the fire officer exceeds their capacity to manage the various simultaneous functions and responsibilities.
What is the 5 step assertive statement process that encompasses the inquiry and advocacy communications steps as described by Todd Bishop?
1) use an opening/attention getter: Hey Chief
2) state your concern: smoke pushing hard, I have a bad feeling
3) state problem as you see it: looks like it’s going to flash
4) state a solution: why don’t we vent/go defensive
5) obtain agreement or buy-in: sound good???
According to the text, Decision Making, is improved by doing what 4 things?
1) gaining experience
2) training constantly
3) improving communications skills
4) engaging in pre-incident planning
According to the text, practicing enhanced communication skills and taking advantage of improved crew interaction at all levels provides what 8 benefits?
1) problem identification is enhanced
2) supervisors at all command levels maintain better incident control
3) situational awareness is improved
4) resource capability is rapidly assessed
5) hazards are more rapidly identified
6) potential solutions are more rapidly developed
7) decision making is improved
8) surprises and unanticipated problems are reduced