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• 2-5 Stories, 20’-30’ wide and 40’-60’ deep.
• All exterior is wood, or a veneer over outer wood sheathing.
• Buildings can be either balloon frame or braced frame.

Balloon Frame
Fire can extend easily vertically. Studs and corner posts are continuous from sill to the top plate.
Side wall studs are notched out and a l”x4” ledger board is fitted and nailed into the studs. The
ledger board supports the floor joists of the upper floor.


Braced Frame
Braced framing stops vertical extension by use of a girt. The girt is a horizontal 2”x4” placed on
top of the studs on each floor. The upper floor studs and floor joists are supported by the girt.

Division walls between buildings are frequently no more than the equivalent of a partition
wall with nogging present.
• Common cornices may be present.
• To gain entrance to the roof from the interior of the building, there is a scuttle on the roof
reached by iron ladder on top floor. The scuttle is usually near the skylight over the stairs.
• Lack of fire stopping at cellar ceilings may permit fire travel from one building to another.
Sometimes the cellar runs under more than one building with no separation.
• Common partition walls between buildings readily permit horizontal spread to exposures
through adjacent walls.


Two Common Types of these Buildings
(1) "Brownstone Type” Row Frame- Generally have 3 front windows per floor with one
apartment going front to rear and no rear fire escape.
(2) "OLT type”
- Railroad flat with two apartments per floor. Generally have 4 windows
across the front, with a rear fire escape. The depth of the building will determine the size
and # of rooms.
• Dumbwaiter and light shafts may be present.

The Danger of Collapse with Fires in this type of Structure Deserves Consideration
• A heavy fire in the cockloft will bum roof supports and cause the collapse of the roof into the
top floor.
• Rear walls can pull away from the building and collapse in one section into the yard.
• Collapse of sidewalls is a danger, especially when buildings within the row have been
demolished and removed, even if the walls are braced.
• The weight of a fire escape can cause a complete collapse of an exterior wall.
• Brick veneer and stucco can collapse in sections or as a complete unit.
• Steel plating attached on interior and exterior walls increases collapse potential.
• When a serious fire burns out the entire 1
floor, there is danger of collapse, especially
in corner buildings and buildings standing alone.


Construction Points from Collapse of Burning Buildings by DC Vincent Dunn Chapter 15
- Wood Frame Building Collapse
• A three story braced frame structure frequently falls in an inward/outward collapse. The top
2 floors collapse inward, back on top of the pancaked floors; the lower story collapses
outward onto the sidewalk.
• Frame building can collapse in one of three ways: 90-degree angle collapse, lean-over
collapse, or inward/outward collapse. Of the 3, the inward/outward collapse is the most
dangerous because it is sudden, gives no visible warning signs prior to failure, and may
involve the collapse of 2, 3, or 4 walls simultaneously.
• Of the 3 major types of wood-frame construction in the US, braced frame wood constructed
buildings present the greatest firefighting danger.
• When a braced frame wood building collapses, all 4 walls may collapse at one time. Only
FFs in the comer safe zones will survive a collapse. The comer safe areas are the 4 flanking
zones around a burning wood frame building.
• In Balloon Construction, the wall studs are 2”x4” that extend in one piece for the full height
of the wall, creating a void from the foundation sill to the attic cap.
• When a braced frame wooden building collapses, it fails at its weakest points — often the
mortise and tenon connection.

• At top floor fires in “Brownstone type” the Inside Team of 1st Ladder will VEIS the top
floor, including examination of the cockloft. The 2nd Ladder will split the company and
examine Exposures 2 and 4 for extension. The Inside Team of the 2nd Ladder will operate in
the most severely threatened exposure.
• At top floor fires in “OLT type” the Inside Team of the 1st Ladder will VEIS the fire
apartment, including the examination of the cockloft. The 2nd Ladder will VEIS the
adjoining apartment, including examination of the cockloft.


Note: When 1st Ladder Co. is an aerial ladder at an “OLT type” Row Frame, the LCC
repositions the aerial ladder to the fire apartment for VEIS for a fire on the 3rd floor or above
after the Roof FF has reached the roof - not required to wait for completion of roof size-up.

When does LCC/OV wait for completion of roof size up from Roof FF before repositioning
the Ladder/Bucket?
(1) 1st Ladder Co. is an Aerial Ladder and “Brownstone type” Layout - LCC waits for
completion of roof size-up before repositioning aerial ladder to top floor for VEIS.
(2) 1st Ladder Co. is a TL at “Brownstone Type Layout - The OV will wait for completion of
roof size-up before repositioning basket to fire floor for ventilation, then to top floor for
VEIS. Prior to VEIS of top floor, OV teams up with Roof FF or another available member.
(3) 1 st Ladder Co. is a TL at an “OLT type” Row Frame - The OV FF waits for completion of
roof size-up before repositioning basket to fire floor for ventilation.


If 1st Ladder is a TL Order of Preference
(1) The TL Basket
(2) 1 st arriving Aerial Ladder
(3) Via Adjoining Buildings - The immediate adjoining building should not be used for access
to the roof due to the possibility of cockloft involvement.

Roof FF Access to Roof at Row Frame Order of Preference
(1) Aerial Ladder
(2) 2nd Arriving Aerial Ladder
(3) Via Adjoining Buildings - The immediate adjoining building should not be used for access
to the roof due to the possibility of cockloft involvement.


When the 1st Ladder Company is a TL, the 2nd Ladder company tools, positions and duties
remain the same with the exception of the LCC, who may be assigned other duties by their
Company Officer, including:
(1) Examination of exposures
(2) Assist with roof operations
(3) Be available to team up with another member, when needed.

Tool Variations
• 1st OV FF at top floor fires takes a saw to the roof in place of their hook (Takes saw,
Halligan, Flashlight and HT).
• 2nd Extinguisher FF should consider taking two 6’ hooks in lieu of the pressurized water
extinguisher at a top floor fire in a “Brownstone type” Row Frame.
• 2nd Roof FF at a top floor fire takes the saw and a 6’ Halligan Hook.


RF Cellar Fire
1st hoseline
• 1 st line through the front door then to the cellar via the interior stairs.
• If 1st line can’t advance into cellar due to intensity of the fire, it should be used to protect
public hall, interior stairs, and 1st floor.
• The 1st line can be advanced to top floor to cover any extension after the cellar fire has been
controlled by the 2nd line. Intervening floors must be checked on way to top floor, and a
member must be stationed on the landing to warn of fire below.

• All interior hand lines stretched are 1 %”
• An engine company, ordered to stretch a line to the top floor of an exposure for the purposes
of extinguishing fire in the cockloft, should take a 6’ hook to pull ceilings.


ROW FRAME FIRE ON 1ST FLOOR 1 st line stretched to location of fire.
If 2nd line not needed to back up 1st line, stretched to floor above fire.
NOTE: In a “Brownstone type”
, the 1st line is stretched through the front door on 1st floor
(Basement) to extinguish fire. 2nd line, if not needed to back up, is stretched through the
front door on the 2nd floor (Parlor Floor).
3rd line stretched as ordered by IC to FETR
Fire Building
' To supply a TL
Through an exposure to the rear yard

• Back up 1 st line.
• If not needed to back up 1st line, depends on where 1st line went. If 1st line advanced into
the cellar, the 2nd line extinguishes any fire on 1st floor and then proceeds to top floor (check
intervening floors and keep member on landing). If 1st line does not advance to the cellar,
the 2nd line will be stretched to the cellar via outside cellar entrance.


ROW FRAME Building Fully Involved and Fire in Exposures - Holding Operation
• 1st engine stretches a handline to enter the building, and a 3 16” supply line for a TL.
• 1st line into the fire building thorough the front door.
• 2nd line, if not needed to back up 1st line, stretched to top floor of most severe exposure.
While proceeding to top floor check intermediate floors.
• If 2nd line backs up 1st line, 3rd line to top floor of most severe exposure. If 2nd line is to
top floor of most severe exposure, 3rd line to top floor of opposite exposure, checking
intermediate floors on way to top floor.
• 4th line as per IC

• 1st line to location of fire via interior stairs. Line needs to have sufficient length to cover
entire building.
• 2nd line, if not needed to back up 1st line, to the top floor or floor above. If a fire is reported
in the exposure, the 2nd line may be more effective being stretched to the exposure, and the
3rd or 4th line to back up 1st line. 2nd line needs to have sufficient length to cover entire
• 3rd line stretched as per IC to FETR
Fire Building
To supply a TL
Through an exposure to the rear yard


Vacant Building(s) in a Row
No lines mentioned being stretched into fire building.
• 1st engine stretches a 3 !4” line to supply a TL, and a hoseline to use on the exterior of the
building. 1st engine can use multiversal nozzle on apparatus if necessary.
• 1st line initially operates from exterior until a TL, multiversal or heavy caliber stream is
placed into operation. Then 1st line into most severe exposure.
• 2nd line, if not needed to back up 1st line, stretched to the opposite exposure of through an
exposure to the rear yard.

Vacant Building in a Row of Occupied Frames
• 1st engine drops 2 lines, a 3 YY" to supply a TL and a handline to enter the most severe
• 1st line to most severe exposure.
• 2nd line, if not needed to back up 1st line, stretched to fire building or opposite exposure.
• 3rd line to the fire building or opposite exposure, depending on where 2nd line was stretched.
• 4th line as per IC.


(1) Exclusion Zone (contaminated) - Hot Zone
• Innermost area of the scene and is considered hot.
• The Hotline, the boundary of the Exclusion Zone, should be initially established based
on the type of materials released and initial instrument readings. The Hotline may be
readjusted based on readings and/or additional observation.
• Red barrier tape should be used to ID the Exclusion Zone.
• People, equipment and apparatus leaving the Exclusion Zone should be considered
contaminated and MUST be decontaminated before leaving the scene.
(2) Contamination Reduction Zone - Warm Zone
• All decon activities occur in the Contamination Reduction Zone
• The Contamination Control Line is the boundary between the CRZ and the Support
• Yellow barrier tape should be used for perimeter ID of the CRZ.
(3) Support Zone (non-contaminated) - Cold Zone
• Outermost area of the site and is considered uncontaminated.
• No contaminated persons, equipment or apparatus are permitted in the Support Zone.

Shipping Documents found in Transportation Vehicles
Trucks - Bill of Lading - Kept in cab within reach of the driver
Railcars - Waybill - Carried by the conductor in the caboose or engine.
Ships and Barges - Cargo Manifest - Kept by the master or first mate.
Airplanes - Airbill - Kept by the pilot.


Evacuation or Shelter in Place?
• Evacuation involves moving threatened people to a shelter in another area.
• Sheltering-in-place involves giving instructions to people to remain where they are until the
danger passes.
• Evacuation is clearly safer with respect to the hazards, but has certain limitations and may
pose new problems. Evacuation may not be possible if there are a large number of people or
a large volume of vapor present.

Gross decontamination can be either wet or dry. It can be either emergency or non�emergency decontamination. Emergency decon may be necessary in potentially life�threatening situations to remove contaminants from victims as quickly as possible and may
or may not involve the establishment of a formal decon system.
Technical Decon is more thorough and follows Gross Decon. Victims have generally been
medically stabilized and time is not critical.
For the safety of all fire and medical personnel, victims should be decontaminated prior to
medical treatment and transport whenever possible. NOTE: In ERP Add. 2, Chemical
Attack Underground Sec. 8.2.13 states “Ensure patients are decontaminated prior to being
treated and transported”.
Separate decon areas should be established for emergency personnel.


When is Sheltering-in-place the preferred alternative?
(A) Pre-planning has identified options for problem areas such as hospitals, jails, nursing
homes and public assemblies.
(B) Evacuation can’t be properly managed with the manpower, resources and facilities
presently available.
(C) The hazardous material displays the following characteristics:
(1) Low to moderate toxicity
(2) Totally released and dissipating
(3) Small quantity solid or liquid leak
(4) A migrating vapor of low toxicity and quantity and people are safer indoors than
(5) Release can be rapidly controlled at the scene

When is Evacuation Best Considered?
(A) There is an immediate danger of fire or explosion.
(B) The potential for a discharge is great, it has not taken place, and there is time to relocate
(C) The discharge has taken place but people are sufficiently protected to permit time for
(D) People not yet in the path of a release will be threatened by changing conditions.



F - Four digit UN/NA ID #
R - Reactions - Are any reactions taking place with the exposed material
A - Amount - Quantity of material involved
C - Color of vapor, liquid or solid
T - Type of release (e.g. explosion, leaking valve, broken bag, etc.)
I - If fuming or not
O - Other pertinent information
N - Name of material involved
S - Symptoms patients are exhibiting (this should also go to EMS)

First Arriving Unit General Considerations at a Haz-Mat Incident
• An attempt to ID the material and its hazards should become a top priority.
• If it is determined that the material has been released and members do not have the proper
PPE, units must withdraw from the area. Transmit a 10-80 signal with the proper code.


10-80 No Code
• An incident that can be controlled by the on-scene unit(s) and requires no additional
resource. The Haz-Mat Battalion (HB01) and Haz-Mat Co. #1 (HM01) can be contacted via
the Dispatcher, 800 MHz radio, or cell phone for technical info, if necessary. HB01 and
HM01 may be requested to respond to the incident if necessary.
Guidelines for transmitting Signal 10-80 No Code include: “SIPS”
• Small - Release is of a small quantity (e.g. gas leak in a stove)
• ID - The material and its hazards have been identified.
• PPE - Firefighters’ PPE provides adequate protection against the identified hazards.
• Special - Special equipment and specialized training are not needed.

10-80 Hazardous Materials Incidents
• The initial notification by field units of a hazardous materials incident. Transmission of the
signal 10-80 will serve to warn responders to proceed with caution to avoid entering a
restricted area. The FDNY IC will transmit the appropriate code after size up and evaluation
of the incident.


NOTE: The only 10-80 Codes are 10-80 (initial transmission), 10-80 No Code and 10-80 I
Code 1.

10-80 Code 1
• An incident requiring additional resources and/or specialized equipment not carried by
regular field units to assist the IC in assessing the hazards and identifying the resources
necessary to manage the spill or release.
Units dispatched on a 10-80 Code 1 include:
Haz-Mat Battalion
Haz-Mat Co. 1
Safety Battalion
Haz-Tac Conditions Officer
Nearest available Haz-Mat Technician Unit
Nearest Available ALS/BLS Haz-Tac Ambulance
In addition to the above, the Dispatcher shall ensure a total response of:
3 Engine companies
2 Ladder Companies
1 Battalion Chief

If people are contaminated, exposed or injured, of the incident involves other hazards, additional
resources should be special called by the IC as needed. The Haz-Mat Battalion can be contacted
for guidance as needed, or may recommend resource assignments to the IC based on preliminary
and progress reports.


Incendiary Fire - Designation given by the Fire Marshal when they have determined that the
fire was intentionally set by someone.
Suspicious Fire — Designation given by the Incident Commander- There are indications that
the fire may have been set and all accidental causes have not been eliminated (When all
accidental causes have been eliminated, the fire is incendiary).

The Borough Dispatcher shall make the following notifications upon transmission of Signal
10-80 Code 1:
Deputy Chief
EMS Operations
Department of Environmental Protection (DEP)
Department of Health (DOH) for Radiological Incidents
NYPD Operations


ARSON Observations Upon Arrival - What to write down
• The license # and description of cars leaving the fire building or vicinity of the fire in a
suspicious manner.
• When flames are visible, write down where you saw them first and their appearance.
• Record information received from occupants and witnesses. DO NOT interrogate or put the
names or statements of witnesses on the face of fire reports.

ARSON Terms to Know
• Trailers - Material arranged to spread fire from its point of origin to other areas of an
occupancy. (Cotton waste, rags, paper, fluid, excelsior, waste film).
• Plants — Materials arranged to start and feed the initial fire (Candles, matches, electrical,
mechanical, chemicals and others).
• Accelerants - Gasoline, kerosene, turpentine, alcohol, paint thinner, cut or disconnected gas
• Ignition Device - Mechanical, chemical, or electrical means used to initiate a fire.
• Protected Area- The clean or unbumed area left by stock, furniture, contents, etc. covering
floors, shelves, or other areas.


ARSON Fatal Fires
• Relatives, neighbors, spectators, the media and members of the Department shall not cross
fire lines unless authorized by the assigned Fire Marshal and/or Chief of Operations.
Note: AUC 314 - Where a MEMBER suffers a life threatening injury - The scene should be
maintained secure until the Safety Chief and the Chief of Fire Investigation determine
• When and where possible and fire conditions permit, do not move the body, pending arrival
of the Fire Marshal and Medical Examiner (10-45 Code 1).
• The Fire Marshal and the Medical Examiner determine the cause and manner of death.
• Absence of CO in blood could indicate death prior to the fire (Note: Strangling or spasm of
the epiglottis, caused by inhalation of super-heated fire gases and smoke, will prevent CO
from entering the lungs).
• CO may cause the victim to appear life-like (pink to cherry-red color of lips, eyelids, or
skin). This would indicate the victim was alive at the time of the fire.
• The skull of the victim may give the appearance that the skull exploded. This is caused by
the expansion (steam) of fluid in the tissues. Don’t confuse with external damage from a
blow to the head.
• A pugilistic position of the victim does not indicate violence or a struggle.


• One FF with a hand extinguisher is sufficient to fulfill a watchline and establish FD control
of the premises.
• To safeguard the FF and provide additional security, request the PD. DO NOT leave only
the PD in charge. Note: This is different than the section on commercial fires where the Fire
Marshal has already arrived and classifies it as being incendiary. In that case, the PD can
thereafter maintain security.
• No one should be allowed into the occupancy until the Fire Marshal arrives. Note: In the
section on Commercial Fires, it says until the Fire Marshal arrives, allow no one, including
the owner, to enter the premises unless authorized by the Officer in charge.

ARSON Lividity 1-2-3-4
• Lividity is caused by the settling of blood to the lowest horizontal areas of the body; it may
show as pink or red skin (Do not confuse with CO cherry red color).
• Lividity usually starts 1-2 hours after death and is completed after 3-4 hours. It could
indicate that the victim was moved after death and placed at the fire scene.


Continuity of Evidence Must be Kept. Where possible, don’t remove evidence until Fire
Marshal arrives.
• Request Photo Unit to respond if Fire Marshal is not responding. NEVER label, mark or
alter evidence in any way prior to photos.
• Evidence can’t be left in the office unless it is locked up or someone else signs and stays with

Evidence Collection and Preservation
(1) Use a one gallon metal can such as a NEW paint can. NEVER use a can that was
previously used. The evidence can be cut or folded into the can and the top must be
tamped securely into place immediately. Most common flammable liquids float on water.
Skim the surface of the water and enclose the sample in a clan new can.
(2) If a new can is not available, use a clean glass jar with a tightly fitting lid.
(3) Try to avoid the use of plastic containers.
(4) A plastic bag can be used in an emergency. It should be new, of heavy gauge and used in
pairs. Place evidence in one bag and tie it closed. Then place that bag into the other and
tie it closed. As soon as possible, place into a can or jar and give to the Fire Marshal.


Glass Objects Used as Indicators to Help Locate the Point of Origin
• Heavy smoke stains, remote from the point of origin, usually indicates a slow fire build-up.
• Light smoke stains usually indicate a rapid build-up of the fire, little fire damage, and are
found close to the point of origin. (Hydro-carbons or products may be an exception to the

Crazing of Glass
• Small crazing indicates intense and rapid heat build-up and will be found closer to the point
of origin.
• Large crazing indicates remoteness from the point of origin and/or a relatively slow heat
• Checkering of glass (half-moon effects or marks) usually results from water being applied to
heated glass. This indicates the window was still in place when the FF’s operated at the fire.



“V” Pattern burns may help to identify point of origin
• “V” Pattern bums usually point toward the point of origin. “V” Pattern is a type of inverted
conical shape with the apex at the bottom being the point of ignition.
• Absence of “V” Pattern burning could mean an accelerant was used. Rapid intense heat from
an accelerant may cause perpendicular burns on walls.

ARSON Depth of Charring
• Wood structural members may bum at approximately one inch every 45 minutes.
• Deepest char may be found at point of origin, however this is not always true due to most
intense and heat may be above the point of origin.
• Small blister type charring may indicate longer burning and hot fires.



Signs of Flammable Accelerants
• Charring of the floor or low bum marks on the wall of under the door or on the lower part of
the door.
• Char in broken patterns or “puddle-like” circle bums on the floor.
• Low burning and deep charring.
• Heavy body of fire with little contents.
• If the fire burned over a large floor area, it could indicate the fire was started with an


Private Dwelling — Engine Operations
• Primary consideration--first hoseline for fires on the first floor or floors above is the main
entrance door to the building.
• Primary consideration--first hoseline for cellar fires is entrance door that provides the
quickest access to the fire area.
• Attached PD’s—stretching the first line through the front door to attempt an attack via the
interior cellar stairs is generally the fastest option.
• Detached and Semi-Attached PD’s, the secondary entrance found on the side or rear of the
dwelling is usually the option that provides the quickest access to the cellar.
• Bilco style doors covering an exterior cellar entrance often requires extensive forcible entry,
and is more indicative of an unoccupied cellar.
• Using Bilco entrances for line placement should not be done—unless it is the only option.

Operating on the first floor above a cellar fire is a very dangerous area—particularly if:
1. The cellar door cannot be closed;
2. Operating above a heavy fire;
3. Working over lightweight constructed floors, regardless of the fire severity.


Operating an exterior line into a cellar window
The IC (Chief or Company Officer) should consider an exterior hoseline operated into a cellar
window for a quick knockdown when:
1. Will be a delay in applying water from the interior
2. When fire conditions dictate
A. Unable to quickly access or locate a secondary cellar entrance + unable to advance
down the interior cellar stair. (DELAY)
B. Unable to locate any cellar entrance (DELAY)
C. At a serious or advanced cellar fire (FIRE CONDITIONS)
D. At a cellar fire involving lightweight construction (FIRE CONDITIONS)

• This must be carefully coordinated with and communicated to all units operating
• The primary consideration for members operating on the first floor above a cellar fire is to
close the interior cellar door at the top of the stairs.
• Members remaining on the first floor, can:
1. Operate under the protection of a charged hoseline on the floor(s) above (OR)
2. Secure an area of refuge, ensuring a ready means of egress (OR)
3. Exit the building.


Exterior line into a cellar window—can only done if no members are operating in the cellar
Exception—In an emergency — if members trapped by fire in the cellar or endangered by fire
because a collapse has occurred, the IC should order the immediate operation of a hoseline into a
cellar window.
• It is a good practice at PD fires, especially serious cellar fires, to have a precautionary
charged hoseline in position near the front of the building for these contingencies.

• If the first engine backstretches, they should drop two handlines in front of the building.
• Maintain the front of fire building accessible for tower ladder placement.
• Consider 214 inch line for faster knock down, greater reach, increased water volume and
increased exposure protection.
• A 2!4 inch line shall be considered at a wind impacted fire.
• A 2 V2 inch line shall be considered at a heavily involved first floor fire in a larger style PDs
• Operate line on the exterior to protect exposures before entering the building.
• Fully involved PD has an increased collapse potential, requires complete evaluation by the IC
before entering.
• Exposure protection - Consider stretching a 2!4” line for increased volume or reach
FFP—BROWNSTONES—Building Fully Involved


FFP—BROWNSTONES—Building Fully Involved
• The first arriving engine company should drop two hoselines in front of the fire building
• Position the apparatus for the possible use of the multiversal nozzle or to supply a TL.
• First Line - Advance into the fire building.
• Second Line - Advance into the fire building as a back-up line.

FFP—ROW FRAMES—Building Fully Involved and Fire in Exposures-Holding Operation
• Fully involved with fire showing in exposures - the first engine company should stretch 3 !4”
supply line for a tower ladder and a hoseline
• First line — The first line is stretched into the fire building through the front door.
• Second line — Not needed to back up first line, stretch to the top floor of most severe
• Third line:
1. If the second line is needed to back up the first line, the third line is stretched to the top
floor of the most severe exposure.
2. If the second line is stretched to the top floor of the most severe exposure, the third line is
stretched to the top floor of the opposite exposure


FFP—ROW FRAME—Vacant Buildings in a Row of Occupied Frames
• The first engine company should drop two hoselines: 3 I/?' line to supply a TL, AND a line
to enter the most severe exposure
• Second line — If not needed to back up the first line, stretch to the fire building or the
opposite exposure
• Third line — Stretch to the fire building or to the opposite exposure, depending on where the
second line was stretched

Indications of an open interior cellar door are:
• Thermal imaging camera showing heat waves emanating across the first floor ceiling
• Smoke action seen on the first floor at the entrance door - smoke showing significant force
and speed under pressure.
• Interior cellar door on 1st floor—should be located and immediately closed, if possible