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Flashcards in First Aid Deck (46):
1

What to check with their airway?

Ensure there is no foreign body or fluid obstructing the airway.

- what is the respiration rate and quality?
- fast or slow
- shallow
- crackly

2

Normal respiration rate for dogs?
Puppies?

Dogs - 8 - 24
Average is 24 breaths per minute

Puppies - 15 - 35 breaths per minute

Count rate for 15 sec and multiply by 4

3

Circulation

Where do you check for a pulse?

What is the normal pulse rate?

What does a fast pulse indicate?

Femoral artery

- pulse strong, weak or thready?

Adult dogs - 60-180 bpm
Puppies - 220 bpm

- larger dogs may be a little slower
- small dogs may be a little faster

Low blood volume - heart is working hard to pump enough blood to the body.

4

Where and how do you check capillary refill time?

Press on gums above the canine tooth.
Can also check the eye or tongue.
- bubble gum pink

Should refill in 1-2 seconds

Takes longer = lack of proper blood flow

5

What color should the gums be?

What do white/grey gums indicate?
What do red gums indicate?
Blue?

Bubble gum pink

White = blood loss. Anemia

Red = toxin, sepsis, or hyperthermia

Blue = hypoxia

6

What is a normal body temperature for a dog? Puppy?

Adult dog - 100 - 102.5
Puppy (0-4 weeks) 94-97
4 weeks + 100 degrees

7

How long is the gestation period?

How long is the heat cycle?

Gestation period is 63 days from the day of ovulation.
Normal range is 56-66 days

Heat cycle is 21 days

8

Acute painful abdomen
Signs

- whining or crying
- vomiting
- panting, grunting or labored breathing
- restlessness
- inability to find comfortable position
- hunched back
- praying or bow position
- pulse is thready and weak
- pale mucus membranes
- dog may go into shock

9

What are the causes of acute abdomen?

- bloat
- urinary stones
- internal injuries
- bladder rupture
- poisoning
- peritonitis- inflammation of abdominal organs
- intestinal obstruction
- splenic rupture - due to tumors

10

Dehydration
Symptoms

- dry, tacky mouth and gums
- thick, ropey saliva
- skin tenting - skin stays in ridge (more than 2 seconds) after being pinched.
- severe- eyes are sunken in
- dog goes into shock

11

Causes of dehydration

Vomiting
Diarrhea

12

Dehydration treatment

Mild:
- give electrolyte solution. 50/50.
- syringe into cheek pouch if needed
- pedialyte best or Gatorade
- 2-4 ml/lb. per hour

Severe
- if dog looks visibly dehydrated. Get to vet immediately.
- vet administered IV fluids

13

Heat stroke
Symptoms

- heavy panting
- difficulty breathing (can't move air fast enough)
- bright red mucous membranes
- thick, stringy saliva
- vomiting
- dog becomes progressively unsteady and may have bloody diarrhea
- rectal temp rises. 104-110 degrees
- shock - lips and mucous membranes become grey
- collapse, seizures and death ensue rapidly

14

Treatment

Cool the dog!

- remove the dog from heat source
- if temp is above 104 begin rapid cooling
- spray dog: wet pads, under front arm pits, and belly and groin areas
- can use alcohol if no water is available
- submerge dog in cool water (tub or creek) for two minutes.
- place dog in front of fan.
- take temp every 10 minutes.
- continue cooling until temp reaches 103 degrees. If temp drops too fast/lower than 103 dog could go into shock
- get to vet immediately!

15

Heat stroke and causes

- dogs don't sweat effectively. Pant to cool themselves.
- air temperature is equal to or higher than body temperature, panting is ineffective.
- ambient air must be cooler than body temperature

- left in car in warm weather
- strenuous exercise in hot, humid weather
- being muzzled in warm weather
- confined outside without shade or water
- being confined on pavement or asphalt
- brachycephalic breeds can not cool themselves effectively

16

Bleeding
3 goals in treating wounds

- stop bleeding
- prevent infection
- prevent dog from disrupting the healing process

17

Bleeding
- types of bleeding

Arterial - bright red blood, spurting
Venous - dark red blood, oozing

- don't use hydrogen peroxide - dissolve the clot
- don't wipe a clotted wound. It could dislodge the clot

18

Two ways to stop bleeding

- DIRECT PRESSURE
- pressure dressing
- apply pressure for 5-10 minutes
- watch for signs of swelling below pressure dressing - indicates impaired circulation. Remove or loosen bandage.

- TOURNIQUET
- used on extremities and tail to stop arterial bleeding that can not be stopped by pressure.
- place above the wound. Between wound and heart.
- loop around limb and tighten with a stick beneath loop. Twist until bleeding stops
- loosen every 10 minutes to check for continued bleeding
- if bleeding continues, let blood flow for a few seconds and re-tighten

19

Wound treatment

What are the 6 steps?

All wounds are contaminated with dirt and bacteria

6 steps:
- skin preparation
- wound irrigation
- debridement
- wound closure
- bandaging
- prevention of re-trauma

20

6 steps in detail:

SKIN PREPARATION
Pressure dressing is removed.
Area around wound is cleaned with surgical scrub. (Betadine or nolvasan)

WOUND IRRIGATION
Wash wound with large amounts of fluid until the tissue is clean

DEBRIDEMENT
remove dead and dying tissue and any foreign matter with tissue forceps
- performed by vet.

CLOSURE
Lacerations longer than 1/2 inch should be sutured.
Sutures need to be done within 8 hours
Delayed primary closure: Wounds that are clean after several days, resistant to infection, can be closed with impunity
* impunity - cutting out the healed tissue to create a fresh wound
Sutures are removed after 10-14 days

BANDAGING
- some wounds are left open - difficult to bandage - Especially around head and neck.
Bandaging protects wound from dirt and contaminants. Prevents dog from licking the wound.

PREVENTION OF RE-TRAUMA
A cone may be needed.

21

Infectious diseases

- caused by bacteria, viruses, Protozoa, fungi and rickettsia.
- transmitted from animal to animal by contact with infected urine, feces, bodily secretions, or by an airborne virus.
- can be acquired by contact with spores in soil that enter body through respiratory tract or break in skin.

22

Distemper - viral

- highly contagious and deadly.
- leading cause of death in dogs worldwide
- highest incidence - unvaccinated puppies 6-12 weeks of age

- attacks brain cells and cells that line the surface of the body.
- signs appear 6-9 days after exposure. Mild cases may go unnoticed.

23

What are the stages of distemper?

First stage- fever spikes 103 - 105 degrees
- second fever spike occurs with loss of appetite, listlessness, watery discharge from eyes and nose.

Second stage - 2-3 weeks after onset of the disease.
- signs of brain involvement.
- brief attacks of slobbering, head shaking, bubble gum seizures, myoclonic seizures.

- take to vet immediately.

24

Kennel cough

- several highly contagious respiratory diseases.
- spreads rapidly where dogs are kept in close quarters. - airborne
- harsh dry cough. Can also have nasal discharge and sneezing.
- may persist for weeks and become chronic as it lowers immunity. Become susceptible to secondary bacteria.

Bacterial Isolates
- Bordetella
- klebisella
- Pastuerella
- Streptococcus
- E. Coli
- Mycoplasma

25

Parvovirus
Spread and prevention

- transmitted by oral contact with infected feces

- Can be carried on dogs hair and feet as well as contaminated objects, such as crates, shoes etc

- can live for 10-12 months in soil. (Handout says 10 years). No disinfectant can kill it in soil.

- hardy virus that resists most cleaners
- only hard surfaces can be disinfected (bleach or virualcide)
- bleach must remain in surface for 20 minutes. Concentration 1:10


26

Parvovirus

- Acute, highly contagious
- attacks rapidly dividing cells in gastrointestinal tract.
- virus is shed in large amounts in stool for several weeks after infection.

27

Parvovirus symptoms

- can affect dogs of any age. Most common in puppies 6-20 weeks

- begins with depression, vomiting, diarrhea.
- Diarrhea is profuse, may contain mucus/blood
- may or may not have fever

28

Coccidiosis - Protozoa

- caused by a species of coccidian found in puppies and some adult feces.
- coccidian is a major problem for neonatal puppies living in filthy and crowded environments

29

Coccidiosis
Treatment and prevention.

- treatment for adults is not usually necessary. Usually mild in symptoms.

- puppies may have severe diarrhea and need IV fluids. Sick puppies should be isolated
- diarrhea looks like butterscotch pudding

- boiling water/steam kills it

30

Giardia- protozoan

- dogs become infected from drinking contaminated water from streams or other sources
- treat with flagyl

31

Internal parasites

Whipworms
Hookworms
Roundworms

32

Whipworms

Transmission
- ingesting the eggs present in contaminated matter. Soil, food, water, feces
- eggs can live in soil for months- years.

Symptoms
Bloody diarrhea, bowel inflammation, anemia, weight loss

Treatment
- panacur
- re- infection will occur

33

Hookworms

- most common in kennel dogs
- can be contracted prenatally, during lactation (ingesting larvae) migration of larvae through skin or ingestion of parasitic host.

Symptoms:
Diarrhea, weakness, vomiting, dehydration, poor growth or anemia in puppies
- Migrate through lungs or liver

Treatment
Pyrantel pamoate

34

Hookworms
Transmission
Simple explanation

Similar to tapeworms and roundworms, hookworms are intestinal parasites that live in the digestive system of your dog (or cat). The hookworm attaches to the lining of the intestinal wall and feeds on your dog’s blood. Its eggs are ejected into the digestive tract and pass into the environment through your dog’s feces.

Larvae (young hookworms) that hatch from hookworm eggs live in the soil. These larvae can infect your dog simply through contact and penetration of the skin and through the dog eating the larvae when they ingest dirt or during their routine licking (cleaning).

35

Roundworms

- transmitted across placenta and through mother's milk. Also by ingesting the ova or a host carrying the ova

- live in small intestines
- juvenile can travel to the liver and lungs. Hepatic and pulmonary damage
T. Canis = transmittable to humans

Symptoms
- diarrhea in puppies
- weight loss, failure to thrive
- poor hair/coat quality
- intestinal obstruction and possible perforation

Diagnosis
- fecal float test

36

Signs to look for if dog is in distress.

A
B
C

Airway
Breathing
Circulation

37

Ear mites
What is it?

How is it diagnosed?

- most common cause of ear problems in puppies and young dogs.
- highly contagious mites that live in the ear canal.
- suspect mites if both ears are involved.
- feeds by piercing the skin.
- causes hypersensitive reaction that leads to intense itching, scratching, violent head shaking.

(Looks like a bat)
Otoscope exam
Microscopic exam of wax
Skin scraping
Scotch tape impression

Once diagnosed, all animals in the house should be treated to prevent reinfestation

38

How to clean dogs ears

Routine cleaning is generally not required

Inside of ear flaps should be cleaned if there is excess debris, wax or dirt.

Gently wipe ear with ear cleaning solution.
Don't use alcohol or other irritants.

Wet ears can cause ear infections.
Place cotton balls in ears when bathing or swimming.

Groom under ear flaps after the dogs has been running through tall weeds, grass or brush.

Do not pluck the ear hair unless there is a medical reason to do so. This will cause the pores to release excess serum - excellent medium for bacteria.

39

Vomiting
Causes

Vomiting is common in all dogs but is not normal.

- eating indigestible substances that irritate the stomach. Eg grass
- overeating or drinking too much water too fast. Common in puppies
- dogs may vomit when they are upset, excited, or anxious (suffering from a phobia)

40

Vomiting
Determining cause:

- is it repeated? Sporadic or persistent?
- persistent - dog vomits repeatedly, bringing up frothy, clear fluid, suggests stomach irritation.
- how soon after eating?
- is it projectile?
- inspect vomitus for blood, fecal matter, foreign objects, worms.
- vomiting blood - red blood means active bleeding between the mouth and upper small bowel. Get to vet
- vomiting fecal matter - likely an intestinal obstruction. Vet emergency.

41

Vomiting
Treatment

- dogs can dehydrate rapidly
- puppies and older dogs are less able to tolerate dehydration and should be seen by a vet.

- rest stomach (withhold food and water) for at least 12 hours.
- if vomiting stops with rest give dog a few ice cubes every 3-4 hours.
- if vomiting has stopped give dog 1/4 - 1/2 cup water every 2-3 hours.
- can add small amounts of pedialyte to water.
- after 12 hours with no vomiting start the dog on a bland diet. 2:1 boiled rice/ boiled hamburger (to remove fat)
- increase volume over two days and slowly return dog to normal diet.

42

Vomiting
Vet emergency:

- Vomiting persists despite no food or water for several hours.
- Vomiting reoccurs during re-introduction phase.
- Vomiting is accompanied by diarrhea
- Dog vomits blood or material that looks like coffee grounds
- dog is weak, lethargic or shows signs of systemic illness.

43

Bloat

Life threatening emergency
- affects dogs in the prime of their life
Mortality rate = 50%
- Early recognition and treatment is the key to survival.

44

Bloat
Signs

- Restlessness
- pacing
- salivation
- retching
- unproductive attempts to vomit
- distended abdomen
- early signs: stomach feels slightly tight when palpated.
- dog may appear lethargic, uncomfortable, walks stiff legged, hangs his head, but may not appear overly anxious or distressed.
Late symptoms - pale gums and tongue, delayed capillary refill time, rapid heart rate, weak pulse, rapid breathing, weakness and collapse

45

Bloat
Predisposing factors

- size
- male
- body conformation
- underweight
- feeding once a day
- fast eaters
- nervous or fearful temperament

46

Bloat
Treatment

GET TO THE VET

- relieve stomach gas
- stomach tube
- Trochar
- treat for shock
- surgical correction
- post-op monitoring