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Flashcards in Mid Term Deck (13):
1

Operant conditioning

- skinner
- manipulating antecedents and consequences.
- explains the relationship between environmental events and actions.
- learning process in which behaviour is controlled by its consequence.
- modify behaviour through punishment and reinforcement.

- Reinforcement
- Punishment
- extinction
- stimulus control - stimuli that proceed behaviour

2

Establishing operations

- events that affect the value of a stimulus as a reinforcer.
- effect of a reinforcer may be different at a particular time or in different situations.
Eg dog just ate. Reduces value of treat

3

Reinforcement

Punishment

Stimulus control

Reinforcement - increases likelihood of a behaviour

Punishment - decreases likelihood of a behaviour

Stimulus control - controlling stimuli that precedes a behaviour

4

Escape conditioning

Avoidance conditioning

Escape conditioning
- negative stimulus is removed after the event.
- get away from aversive
- go inside when it's raining

Avoidance conditioning
- occurs before aversive event has occurred
"No" followed by correction

5

Schedules of reinforcement

- which response will be reinforced and how often

Intermittent vs continuous

Fixed or variable

-Ratio - number of responses
- interval
- duration - how long a behaviour is engaged in

6

Limited hold

Window of time to perform a behaviour

- builds quick responses

7

Establishing operations

Understanding which reinforcers are effective at a particular time and in a particular situation.
- motivation
- deprivation
- Satiation.

8

Reinforcement summary

- reinforcers must be identified and delivered on appropriate schedule

- training is complete when reinforcers have been faded and conditioned reinforcers established.

9

Response cost

Withholding reinforcer for unacceptable performance

10

Stimulus control

Putting behaviour on cue

Antecedents
Behaviour
Consequence

11

Stimulus discrimination

Behaviour is reinforced when a specific stimulus is present
Eg harness in SAR

12

Shaping

Rewarding successive approximations to desired behaviour

13

Classical conditioning

Pavlov
- reflexes, biology
- reflexive behaviours- anxiety, fears, phobias

- a neutral stimulus can become conditioned when paired with an unconditioned stimulus
- unconditioned stimulus - treat
- unconditioned response - salivation
- conditioned stimulus- shaking treat box
- conditioned response - salivation when box is shaken

- habituation - have a less negative reaction to a stimulus after repeated exposure.

- counter conditioning - negatively conditioned stimulus paired with a reinforcer. - counters effects of previous learning aversive

- systematic desensitization
- flooding.