First Aid pg 450-454 Neuro Flashcards Preview

FIRST aid 2015 - Sahaja > First Aid pg 450-454 Neuro > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Aid pg 450-454 Neuro Deck (47):
1

Bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation in upper limb?

Sphingomyelia,

2

Which part of the spinal cord affect in Sphingomyelia?

Most common at C8 --> T1

3

Intention tremor plus loss of pain and temp sensation in UL?

Chiari I malfomation - cerebellar tonisillar ectopia >3-5mm

4

Which fibers are destroyed in Syringomyelia?

crossed fibers in ant white commissure, spinothalamic tract

5

Which arches are responsible for the ant 2/3 tongue? Gen sens'n nerve? Nerve for taste?

1st and 2nd arch, Mandibular n (V3), Facial n (VII)

6

Which arches for the post 1/3 of tongue? N for gen sens'n and taste?

3rd and 4th arch, CN IX, root is CN X

7

Function of hyoglossus, genioglossus, and styloglossus?

Hyo - retracts and lower tongue
Genio - protrudes tongue
Stylo - pulls sides of tongue upwards

8

Which n innervates which m of tongue?

All muscles of tongue inn by CN XII, except palatoglossus, by CN X

9

Nissl staining stains what (what parts of neuron) and what molecular structure?

rER, so therefore only stains the body of neuron, not axon

10

What is Wallerian degeneration?

Degeneration distal to injury of an axon, and axonal retraction proximally

11

Where can axons regenerate?

Periph Nervous system

12

Which neuro cell type is responsible for K metabolism?

Astrocytes

13

marker of Astrocytes?

GFAP

14

Embryo origin of microglial cells?

mesodermal origin, from monocytes in Bone marrow

15

In HIV, what neurological reaction occurs in the CNS and with which cell type?

fomation of multinucleated giant cells from microglia

16

Which cells produce the myelin sheath in CNS and PNS?

CNS - oligodendrocytes
PNS - Schwann cells

17

What type of channels are seen at the nodes of Ranvier?

Na+ channels (where AP happens!)

18

Schwann cells are injured in which disease, causing ascending paralysis? Assoc with which microbe?

Guillan Barre syndrome, C. jejuni

19

Embryo origin of Schwann cells?

neural crest

20

What is the difference in myelination between Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes? (other than location)

A Schwann cell can only myelinate one single PNS axon
An oligodendrocyte can myelinate several (about 30) CNS axons

21

What neuro cell have a fried egg appearance histo wise?

Oligodendroglia

22

What 3 diseases are associated with damage to oligodendroglia?

MS, PML (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), leukodystrophy

23

Difference between C and Adelta fibers?

C - slow and unmyelinated (C student is slow) A - fast, myelinated)

24

Where are meissner corpuscles located? What do they sense?

hairless skin, fine touch and position sense

25

Where are pacinian corpuscles located? What do they sense?

vibration, pressure

26

Where are Merkel discs located? What do they sense?

Pressure, deep touch, position sense

27

Where are ruffini corpuscles?

finger tips, joints

28

Location of synthesis of Ach? Inc /Dec in which disease?

Made at Basal nucleus - Inc in Parkinsons, Dec in Alzheimer, Huntingtons

29

Location of synthesis of Dopamine?

Ventral tegmentum, SN(pars compacta)

30

Inc/Dec Dopamine in which diseases?

Dec in depression, parkinson, - Inc in Schizophrenia, Huntington

31

GABA made in ?

nucleus accumbens

32

GABA dec in ?

Huntingtons, Anxiety

33

Where is NE made?

Locus ceruleus

34

NE inc/Dec in?

Inc = anxiety, dec = depression

35

Serotonin made where?

Raphe nucleus

36

Serotonin is inc/dec where?

Dec in Anxiety and depression, Inc in Par

37

How does myelination affect n transmission characteristics?

have inc diam, and faster AP conduction

38

3 parts to the BBB?

Tight junctions between nonfenestrated capillary endothelial cells, BM, Astrocyte foot processes

39

What drugs can penetrate the blood brain barrier?

lipid soluble drugs

40

Where is there a break in BBB to allow for secretion?

At the Hypothalamus for the secretion of ADH, Oxytocin and releasing factors.

41

2 major inputs to HT not protected by BBB?

1. OVLT (organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, senses changes in Osmo
2. Area postrema

42

Which area of HT manages hunger? Stimulated/inhibited by?

Lateral area - Inc by Ghrelin, inhibited by leptin

43

A cranipharyngioma of this area of the HT leads to hyperphagia, stimulated by what hormone?

VM - can be stimulated by leptin

44

Which autonomic nervous system affects the cooling center?

PANS - bc when you're resting and digesting, you want to be cool.

45

Which nucleus causing cooling?

Ant - for A/C

46

Which nucleus is responsible for heating?

Post - her butt is HOT

47

Which nucleus is responsible for circadian rhythm?

Suprachiasmatic nucleus - You need to see light to have a good circadian rhythm