Flashcards in First Aid pg 450-454 Neuro Deck (47):
Bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation in upper limb?
Which part of the spinal cord affect in Sphingomyelia?
Most common at C8 --> T1
Intention tremor plus loss of pain and temp sensation in UL?
Chiari I malfomation - cerebellar tonisillar ectopia >3-5mm
Which fibers are destroyed in Syringomyelia?
crossed fibers in ant white commissure, spinothalamic tract
Which arches are responsible for the ant 2/3 tongue? Gen sens'n nerve? Nerve for taste?
1st and 2nd arch, Mandibular n (V3), Facial n (VII)
Which arches for the post 1/3 of tongue? N for gen sens'n and taste?
3rd and 4th arch, CN IX, root is CN X
Function of hyoglossus, genioglossus, and styloglossus?
Hyo - retracts and lower tongue
Genio - protrudes tongue
Stylo - pulls sides of tongue upwards
Which n innervates which m of tongue?
All muscles of tongue inn by CN XII, except palatoglossus, by CN X
Nissl staining stains what (what parts of neuron) and what molecular structure?
rER, so therefore only stains the body of neuron, not axon
What is Wallerian degeneration?
Degeneration distal to injury of an axon, and axonal retraction proximally
Where can axons regenerate?
Periph Nervous system
Which neuro cell type is responsible for K metabolism?
marker of Astrocytes?
Embryo origin of microglial cells?
mesodermal origin, from monocytes in Bone marrow
In HIV, what neurological reaction occurs in the CNS and with which cell type?
fomation of multinucleated giant cells from microglia
Which cells produce the myelin sheath in CNS and PNS?
CNS - oligodendrocytes
PNS - Schwann cells
What type of channels are seen at the nodes of Ranvier?
Na+ channels (where AP happens!)
Schwann cells are injured in which disease, causing ascending paralysis? Assoc with which microbe?
Guillan Barre syndrome, C. jejuni
Embryo origin of Schwann cells?
What is the difference in myelination between Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes? (other than location)
A Schwann cell can only myelinate one single PNS axon
An oligodendrocyte can myelinate several (about 30) CNS axons
What neuro cell have a fried egg appearance histo wise?
What 3 diseases are associated with damage to oligodendroglia?
MS, PML (Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy), leukodystrophy
Difference between C and Adelta fibers?
C - slow and unmyelinated (C student is slow) A - fast, myelinated)
Where are meissner corpuscles located? What do they sense?
hairless skin, fine touch and position sense
Where are pacinian corpuscles located? What do they sense?
Where are Merkel discs located? What do they sense?
Pressure, deep touch, position sense
Where are ruffini corpuscles?
finger tips, joints
Location of synthesis of Ach? Inc /Dec in which disease?
Made at Basal nucleus - Inc in Parkinsons, Dec in Alzheimer, Huntingtons
Location of synthesis of Dopamine?
Ventral tegmentum, SN(pars compacta)
Inc/Dec Dopamine in which diseases?
Dec in depression, parkinson, - Inc in Schizophrenia, Huntington
GABA made in ?
GABA dec in ?
Where is NE made?
NE inc/Dec in?
Inc = anxiety, dec = depression
Serotonin made where?
Serotonin is inc/dec where?
Dec in Anxiety and depression, Inc in Par
How does myelination affect n transmission characteristics?
have inc diam, and faster AP conduction
3 parts to the BBB?
Tight junctions between nonfenestrated capillary endothelial cells, BM, Astrocyte foot processes
What drugs can penetrate the blood brain barrier?
lipid soluble drugs
Where is there a break in BBB to allow for secretion?
At the Hypothalamus for the secretion of ADH, Oxytocin and releasing factors.
2 major inputs to HT not protected by BBB?
1. OVLT (organum vasculosum of lamina terminalis, senses changes in Osmo
2. Area postrema
Which area of HT manages hunger? Stimulated/inhibited by?
Lateral area - Inc by Ghrelin, inhibited by leptin
A cranipharyngioma of this area of the HT leads to hyperphagia, stimulated by what hormone?
VM - can be stimulated by leptin
Which autonomic nervous system affects the cooling center?
PANS - bc when you're resting and digesting, you want to be cool.
Which nucleus causing cooling?
Ant - for A/C
Which nucleus is responsible for heating?
Post - her butt is HOT