First Aid pg 271-275 Cardio Flashcards Preview

FIRST aid 2015 - Sahaja > First Aid pg 271-275 Cardio > Flashcards

Flashcards in First Aid pg 271-275 Cardio Deck (29):
1

What is the O2 saturation of umbilical vein/arteries?

Vein = 80% saturation, A= very low

2

pO2 of umbilical saturation?

pO2 = 20 mmHg

3

What is the change in pressure that allows the foramen ovale to close?

At birth, the infant takes a breath - there is a decreased resistance in pulmonary a/v and the LA pressure increases versus the R atrial pressure makes the foramen ovale closes

4

What process leads to the closure of ductus arteriosus?

Higher levels of O2 from respiration and decrease in prostaglandins due to placental seperation lead to closure of ductus arteriosus?

5

Which drug aids in closing PDA? What keeps it open?

Close PDA - Indomethacin
Keep PDA open - PGE1 & PGE2

6

With what disease would you want to keep a PDA open?

Transposition of vessels, Pulm atresia

7

What is the origin of the nucleus palposis?

Notochord

8

Occlusion of which artery with lead to nodal dysfuntion? Symptoms?

RCA - brady, heart block

9

When is peak coronary blood flow?

early diastole

10

Most common location of coronary a occlusion?

LAD

11

Hoarseness or dysphagia can occur with enlargement of which chamber?

Left atrium

12

How is CO maintained in early and late stages of exercise?

Early - inc HR, SV
Late - only inc HR (SV plateaus)

13

What leads to inc pulse pressure?

Hyperthyroidism
Aortic Regurgitation
Aortic stiffening (isolate systolic HTN in elderly)
Obstructive sleep apnea (Inc SANS tone)
Exercise

14

Which conditions lead to dec pulse pressure?

Aortic stenosis
Cardiogenic shock
cardiac tamponade
advanced CHF

15

SV is inc by which parameters?

inc Contractility
dec Afterload
inc Preload

16

What dec contractility?

BB, systolic HF, acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, non-dihydropyridine CCB, loss of myocardium (MI), dilated cardiomyopathy

17

What inc contractility?

catecholamines, inc IC Ca2+, dec EC Na+, Digitalis

18

What parameters will inc O2 demand?

Inc contractility, afterload, HR, diameter of ventricle

19

What parameter estimates preload?

EDV

20

Drug to decrease preload? afterload?

Preload - venodilators (Nitroglycerin), ACE, ARBS
Afterload - vasodilators (Hydralazine), ACE, ARBS

21

delta P =?

Q x R

22

How does organ removal affect TPR and CO?

Inc TPR, dec CO - bc an organ is in series.

23

Viscosity depends on what blood parameter?

Hct

24

What inc/dec viscosity?

Inc = Hyperproteinemic states, polycythemia
dec = anemia

25

Which type of vessel affects TPR most?

arterioles

26

How will uncompensated CHF affect contractility and VR?

Dec contractility, no effect on VR

27

How does exercise affect TPR/CO?

decrease TPR (thereby inc CO/VR)

28

How does an AVs shunt affect CO?

AV shunts will dec TPR --> inc CO

29

How do narcotics affect CO/VR? affect RA pressure? EDV? how?

Narcotics dec venous tone --> dec CO/VR and RA pressure --> dec EDV?