Flashcards in First Aid pg 271-275 Cardio Deck (29):
What is the O2 saturation of umbilical vein/arteries?
Vein = 80% saturation, A= very low
pO2 of umbilical saturation?
pO2 = 20 mmHg
What is the change in pressure that allows the foramen ovale to close?
At birth, the infant takes a breath - there is a decreased resistance in pulmonary a/v and the LA pressure increases versus the R atrial pressure makes the foramen ovale closes
What process leads to the closure of ductus arteriosus?
Higher levels of O2 from respiration and decrease in prostaglandins due to placental seperation lead to closure of ductus arteriosus?
Which drug aids in closing PDA? What keeps it open?
Close PDA - Indomethacin
Keep PDA open - PGE1 & PGE2
With what disease would you want to keep a PDA open?
Transposition of vessels, Pulm atresia
What is the origin of the nucleus palposis?
Occlusion of which artery with lead to nodal dysfuntion? Symptoms?
RCA - brady, heart block
When is peak coronary blood flow?
Most common location of coronary a occlusion?
Hoarseness or dysphagia can occur with enlargement of which chamber?
How is CO maintained in early and late stages of exercise?
Early - inc HR, SV
Late - only inc HR (SV plateaus)
What leads to inc pulse pressure?
Aortic stiffening (isolate systolic HTN in elderly)
Obstructive sleep apnea (Inc SANS tone)
Which conditions lead to dec pulse pressure?
SV is inc by which parameters?
What dec contractility?
BB, systolic HF, acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia, non-dihydropyridine CCB, loss of myocardium (MI), dilated cardiomyopathy
What inc contractility?
catecholamines, inc IC Ca2+, dec EC Na+, Digitalis
What parameters will inc O2 demand?
Inc contractility, afterload, HR, diameter of ventricle
What parameter estimates preload?
Drug to decrease preload? afterload?
Preload - venodilators (Nitroglycerin), ACE, ARBS
Afterload - vasodilators (Hydralazine), ACE, ARBS
delta P =?
Q x R
How does organ removal affect TPR and CO?
Inc TPR, dec CO - bc an organ is in series.
Viscosity depends on what blood parameter?
What inc/dec viscosity?
Inc = Hyperproteinemic states, polycythemia
dec = anemia
Which type of vessel affects TPR most?
How will uncompensated CHF affect contractility and VR?
Dec contractility, no effect on VR
How does exercise affect TPR/CO?
decrease TPR (thereby inc CO/VR)
How does an AVs shunt affect CO?
AV shunts will dec TPR --> inc CO