first quiz 2 Flashcards Preview

Path 1 > first quiz 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in first quiz 2 Deck (50):
1

Chemical exogenous toxins (2)

CCl₄(carbon tetrachloride, bad for hepatocytes)
alcohol

2

Endogenous toxins (3)

Genetic
Ionizing radiation
accumulation of metabolic by products

3

Genetic toxins can occur via (2)

accumulation of normal metabolites
activation of an alternative pathway

4

When homogentisic acid builds up in the IVD cartilage, it is called _____

ochronosis

5

The activation of the alternate pathways produces these toxins (3)

phenyl pyruvic acid
phenyl lactic acid
phenyl acetic acid

6

_____ happens when homogentisic acid cannot be converted in the intermediate steps of phenylalanine metabolism

alkaptonuria

7

____ is the only disease that is characterized by the calcification of IVD's

Alkaptonuria

8

Symptoms of alkaptonuria (2)

- urine that turns black after 40 minutes of contact with air
- Blue ears

9

With ______, the enzyme is missing to convert phenylalanine to tyrosine, so phenylalanine is converted to ketones which build up in the blood which causes brain damage

phenylketonuria

10

With Phenylketonuria, phenylalanine coverts to ketones which build up in the blood as _______

phenylpyruvic acid

11

_____ bacteria produce metabolic wastes that are toxic to our system

Gram

12

Ionizing radiation produces free radicals which destroys _____

phospholipids

13

The most susceptible to ionizing radiation in the body are (3)

DNA
cell proteins
membrane lipids

14

Ionizing radiation affects _____, and thus function

cell structure

15

_____ is a disorder associated with the accumulation of metabolic by-products

gout

16

Gout is associated with the increase production and/or decrease elimination of _____

uric acid

17

Mechanism of gouty arthritis:
Increase of uric acid in the blood, _____ try to eliminate the uric acid crystals which destroys them and releases enzymes into the blood.

phagocytes

18

The uric acid crystals eventually go to the bone, especially the ______

first metatarsal-pharyngeal joint (big toe)

19

Gout invades the joints, not soft tissue, but you can see tophus in soft tissue, which are small round pellets especially found on the ____ and the ___

olecranon process, ear

20

Gout in the _____ is the most lethal, and has a very slow progression(up to 20 years)

Kidney(tophus)

21

______ is the loss of structural integrity via physical injury which leads to the interference of cell function

trauma

22

Types of cell trauma (5

direct contact
hypothermia
hyperthermia
mechanical pressure
microorganisms

23

Direct contact cell injury happens ______. Examples:

mechanically; battle sign, racoon eyes

24

With hypothermia, cells _____ because of the water and breaks the cell membrane

expand

25

Hyperthermia (3)

fire
high dosage of ionizing radiation
electric curren

26

____ is an example of both trauma and an endogenous toxin

Ionizing radiation

27

Exposure to high temperatures means above _____˚C

42˚C

28

Mechanical pressures (4)

tumor
aneurysm(cerebral arteries near bifuraction common site)
high intensity sound
stones

29

Pressure can result in pressure _____ because the cells cannot resist the pressure

atrophy

30

High intensity sound results in the compression of the _____ in the ear

nerve endings

31

______ grow inside and burst cells

Microorganisms

32

Microorganism cell trauma examples (3)

malaria plasmodium(anaphelus mosquito)
echinococcus cyst
viruses

33

Malaria plasmodium ruptures _____ every 2-4 days

rbcs

34

Echinococcus cyst is usually found in (3) in the body and it is caused by eating infected meat

liver
kidney
brain

35

changes in cell categories

functional reversible
structural reversible
irreversible

36

Cell membrane affects the _____ of the cell, and sometimes functional changes causes ______ changes

function, anatomical

37

Functional reversible changes are (2)

1) cell accumulations 2)tissue accumulations

38

Cell and tissue accumulations (3)

hydropic change
steatosis
residual bodies

39

Hydropic changes examples (2)

hydropic degeneration
cloudy swelling

40

Hydropic changes causes the inability of the cell to produce enough _____. This forces water inside the cell, and if this happens in the kidney tubule, water goes into the tubule decreasing the size of the ______

TP, lumen Poiseulle's Law(4th power of the radius)

41

Steatosis refers to the accumulation of triaglycerides in the ___ cells which compress the cell contents moving them to the periphery which can cause the cell to rupture

parenchymal

42

steatosis causes (5)

malnutriton
alcoholism
diabetes mellitus
obesity
anoxia

43

Alcoholism causes ____ to accumulate and makes the hepatocytes swell

FFAs

44

With anoxia, the lack of oxygen restricts the reaction to make _____

lipoproteins

45

With malnutrition , the lack of ____ make it difficult to produce lipoproteins

proteins

46

_____ are fragments of bacteria or cellular organelles found in an injured cell that the cell failed to digest either due to cellular dysfunction, or resistance of some bacteria to lysosomal enzymes

Residual bodies

47

_____ are related to the cell's capacity to cope with potentially threatening bacteria or to deal with damaged organelles

Residual bodies

48

Residual bodies are indicators that the cell was _____ but _____

injured, recovered

49

_____ are parts of subcellular membranes that are indigestible, it is a pigment of aging, "brown atrophy"

Lipofuscin aka lipochrome

50

Lipofuscin represents complexes of proteins and lipids that are derived from the free radical peroxidation of ______ of subcellular membranes

polyunsaturated lipids